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The (PHCH) Power Holding Company of Nigeria Plc, effort to provide us with
a regular power supply has not yet been achieved. And it is because of the
search for another means of power generation that necessitated the development
of wind turbine.
The wind energy is abundant in several parts. Among the numerous
natural energy resources that Nigeria was blessed with, wind is among the once
in great quantity. Wind can be used in conjunction with turbines to produce
electricity in isolation to supply numerous consumers. The PHCN can as well
use it to serve its customer be it commercial or residential load. It is because of
this aggressive search that in this paper I try to discuss various methods of
converting wind energy to electrical energy. The places it is obtainable and how
it can be best used to achieve maximum result in Nigeria.
Title page i
Approval page ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of contents vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of study 2
1.2 Energy from wind 4
2.0 Consideration for wind powered generator 6
2.1 Basic principal of wind power generation 9
2.2 Performance 12
3.0 Types of wind machine 13
3.1 Horizontal axis wind turbine 13
3.2 Vertical axis wind turbine 15
3.3 Power in the wind 17
3.4 Matching wind turbine to load 19
4.0 Strength Calculation for Structural Analysis & Safety 21
4.1 System Design 25
4.2 Integration and Control 30
5.0 Viability in Nigeria 32
5.1 Analysis of Wind Resource 34
5.2 Identification of Wind Data Source 36
5.3 Advantages 39
6.0 Conclusion 41
Reference 43
Since ancient times, people have harnessed the winds and energy. Over 5,000 years
ago, the ancient Egyptians used wind to sail ships on the Nile River. Later, people built
wind mills to grind wheat and other grains. The earliest known wind mills were in
Persia. These early wind mills looked like large paddle wheels. Centuries later, the
basic design of the wind mills was improved. It was given a propeller type blade. The
evolution has been slow but continuous, with two major phases. The first in which
wind energy was directly use for mechanical work, as in windmills, sawmills, water
lifting etc. and a second phase in which mechanical energy was changed into electrical
Since their first appearance, it have undergone many changes and improvements
in their major components. For instance, the major structure varied from wood frames
to more stable masonry works and subsequently to steel frames.
The interest here is on manufacturing system of which my goal will be looking at wind
as a means to effective power generation and system integration given a complete
program activities addressing electric power market rules.
This wind in question has played a long and important role in the history of human
civilization and is the world fastest growing energy technology, when
flowing wind is captured and is turned into electricity and this process is called
Wind powered generation. Turbine and generator coverts the energy into
electricity which can be used in isolation or fed into the electrical grid to be used in
homes, farms, business and by industries.
As the search for energy is now probing the realm of the wind and the sun,
human beings are sure to get a lasting solution to electricity problem. In using energy
to produce mechanical work, humans, since the beginning of civilization, have focused
their attention on those forces found explicit in
nature. Animal, hydraulic, and wind energy did not require transformation into other
energy types.
Instead, the use of such energy type necessitated the invention of mechanisms
whose complexity has constantly increased with the progress of technology. In
particular, since ancient times, the kinetic energy of the wind has been used to propel
ships and machines, such as windmill that proceeded the industrial age. The wind
power has been used for the production of electricity itself, but in small scale.
However, because of world wide energy crisis, wind energy once again is being
studied for large-scale application, along with other
sources neglected. In the utilization of the wind or other natural energy forms, the
unlimited potentials of the source must be recognized in contraposition to the limited
supply of fossil fuel presently used.
Solar energy, which generates the wind is considered unlimited. The relationship
between the dynamic force in the wind and solar radiation is direct. Another major
characteristic of wind energy is the absence of any form of pollution, either in its direct
utilization for the production of mechanical work or in its transformation into electrical
energy. Yet, despite such positive factors, wind energy was neglected until a few years
ago. An estimate 1% to
3% of energy from the sun that hit the earth is converted into wind energy.
Most of this energy can be found at high altitude where continuous wind speeds over
160km/h (100mph) occur. This wind energy is converted through friction into diffuse
heat throughout the earth’s surface and the atmosphere.
The wind power estimated apply to areas free to local obstruction to wind terrain
features that are well exposed to wind such as open plains, table/and hilltops, Exposed
coastal areas are also rice potentials for wind application.
Wind is simple air in motion. It is caused by uneven heating of the earth’s surface by
the sun. Since the earth’s surface is made of very different types of land and water, it
absorbs the sun’s heat at different rates. During the day, the air above the land heats up
more quickly than the air over water. The warm air over the land expands and rises,
and the heavier, cooler air rushes in to take its place. Creating winds at night, the winds
are reversed because the air cools more rapidly over land than over water.
In the same way, the large atmospheric winds that circle the earth are created because
the land near the earth’s equators is heated more by the sun than the land near the north
and South Pole.
Today, wind energy is mainly used to generate electricity. Wind is called a
renewable energy sources because the wind will blow as long as the sun shines.
Valleys often experience calm conditions at night even when adjacent hilltops are
windy, cool, heavy air drains from hillside and collects in the valleys. The resulting
layer of air is removed from the general flow above it to produce the calm condition in
the low lands.

Fig 1
Because of this, a wind turbine located on a hill may be able to produce power all
night, while one located at a lower operation stands idle. This phenomenon is more
likely to occur on high terrain features that reach at least several hundreds feet above
the surrounding land. High terrain features can accelerate the flow of wind. An
approaching air mass is often squeezed into a thinner layer so it speeds up as it crosses
the summit. Over a ridge, maximum acceleration occurs when the wind blows
perpendicular to the ridge side. Isolated hills and mountains may accelerate the wind
less than ridges because more of the air tends to flow around the side. The downward
side of high terrain features should be avoided because of the presence of high wind
Land areas adjacent to large bodies of water may be good wind site for two
reasons. First, a water surface is smoother than land surface so air flowing over water
encounters little frictions. The best shoreline site is one where the wind direction is “on
shore”. Second when regional wind are light as on a sunny day local wind known as
sea or lake breeze can develop because the land and water surface heat up at different


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