Sexual violence is an emerging public health challenge that affects millions of adolescents around the globe. The Nigerian increased prevalence is not much different from what other African counterparts suffers as the media has at least a case report of sexual violence against minors daily. Despite studies revealing these age group to be the most affected, little is known about how much awareness and knowledge these adolescents have on sexual violence, its predisposing risks and available help resources as well as what experiences the adolescents with low economic status have. It is in the light of this that the researcher carried out the study to explore the knowledge and experience of adolescents on sexual violence in public High School in Ife Central local Government Area.
This study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design, A total population of 362 Adolescents from four public high school, participated in the study. The questionnaire used was a self structured questionnaire with an adapted section from the sexual violence experience standard scale. The questionnaire was validated and tested for reliability with an overall alpha coefficient 0.8. 365 copies of the questionnaire were distributed and 362 were returned back to the researcher dully filled. The data retrieved from the participant were coded and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. It involved descriptive & inferential statistics
Findings from this study shows a mean age of 15.9 with a standard deviation of 1.55 The results also shows that majority of the adolescents 304 (83.5%), In Ife Central Local Government Area, have poor knowledge on what sexual violence is, its predisposing risk, and knowledge of resources to go for help if they fall victims. While 58 (16.4) have good knowledge of sexual violence. The mean value for knowledge was 5.74 with a standard deviation of 2.3. On experience, low level of sexual violence experience was reported by 271 ( 74.5%) of the respondents while 93( 25.5%) reported high experience of sexual violence. the mean value for experience was10.87 with a standard deviation of 3.94. Both male and females reported experience of sexual violence, however, most males reported being more of perpetrators than victims. Adolescents with parent of lower social economic status showed higher report of experience of sexual violence than their counterparts. Adolescents with good knowledge of sexual violence and its risk factors. reported lower experience of sexual violence.
In conclusion, poor knowledge of Adolescents on sexual violence, its risk and available resources, as well as low socio-economic background of adolescents are contributing factor to increase prevalence among this age group. Thus it is recommended that more efforts and intervention studies should be put in place to increase awareness on sexual violence, especially on the risk and resources available to these adolescents for help. There is also need for community nurses to help link resource centers to schools. School based intervention studies are needed to really determine best approach to curbing this menace.
Keywords; Sexual Violence, Knowledge, Experience, Adolescents, Rape.
Word Count: 487
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
List of Appendices xi
List of Acronyms xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objective of the Study 3
1.4 Research Questions 3
1.5 Hypotheses 3
1.6 Scope of the Study 4
1.7 Significance of the Study 4
1.8 Justification for the Study 4
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms 5
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 7
2.1 The Adolescent 8
2.2 Prevalence of sexual violence among adolescents. 9
2.3 Child sexual abuse 10
2.4 Causes of sexual Violence 12
2.5 Prevention of sexual violence 12
2,6 Effect of sexual violence 17
2.7 Experience of sexual violence 21
2.8 Burden of sexual violence in Nigeria 24
2.9 knowledge of sexual violence 26
2.10 Role of community health nurse in reducing sexual violence 27
2.11 Theoretical frame work 28
2.12 Conceptual model 31
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction 33
3.1 Research Design 33
3.2 Population 33
3.3 Sample size and sampling Technique 34
3.4 Instrumentation 35
3.5 Validity of Instrument 36
3.6 Reliability of Instrument 37
3.7 Method of Data Collection 37
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 37
3.8 Ethical Consideration 38
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.0 Introduction 39
4.1 Demographic analysis of respondents 39
4.2 Knowledge of adolescents on Sexual violence 40
4.3 Answering of Research questions 42
4.4 Experience of sexual violence 46
4.5 Hypothesis testing 51
4.7 Discussion of findings 54
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction 57
5.1 Summary 57
5.2 Conclusion 58
5.3 Recommendations 58
5.4 Limitation of the Study 59
LIST OF TABLES
3.1 Distribution of Respondents by school and level of study 35
4.1 Distribution of Demographic Variables 40
4.2 Distribution of Respondents ‘on source of knowledge of 41
4.3 Distrbution on respondents knowledge on sexual violence 42
4.4 Computation of Respondents’ level of Knowledge on sexual Violence 43
4.5 Distribution of respondents Knowledge of risk reduction in preventing 45
4.6 Distribution of Adolescents’ Experience of Sexual Violence among Respondents 46
4.7 Distribution of Adolescents form of experience of sexual violence. 48
4.8 distribution of adolescents nature of experience of sexual violence 50
4.9 Distribution of Adolescents’ Reaction to Experience of Sexual Violence 51
4.10 Chi Square for adolescent age And knowledge 52
4.11 Anova of socio economic status and experience of sexual violence 53
4.12 Pearson Correlation for knowledge and experience of Sexual Violence. 53
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1 Model for theory of reasoned action 30
4.1 Pie chart showing respondents distribution of knowledge. 44
1: Questionnaire used in this Study 61
2: Informed Consent Form 67
3: Ethical Clearance Certificate 69
4: Letter of Introduction 70
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CDC; Center For Disease Control.
CARE; Community Awareness Rape Education.
SES; Sexual Experience Scale
WHO; World Health Organization
YBSS; Youth Behavior Screening Survey.
- Background to the Study
Sexual violence is a major dehumanizing and serious emerging public health problem. It is also a social problem that affects thousands of people each year throughout the world, and adolescents seem to be the most affected victims due to their vulnerability (Center for Disease Control, 2011). About one hundred and fifty million girls below the age of 18 are said to have had experience of some form of sexual abuse (WHO, 2012). Researches also shows that 6 out of 10 sexual violence actions is done against girls between the age of fifteen or younger. Despite these high figures, they are still an underestimation of figures as a good number of sexual violence cases are never reported to the relevant establishment due to fear, shame and bias. (Sandra & Bloom, 2005). The male counterparts are not left out as well, although females seem to bear the largest brunt of the problem. Sexual violence can have long lasting, harmful consequence on it victims, their relatives, friends, and communities.
WHO (2012), described sexual violence as any attempt to achieve a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments, or advances, or act to traffic or otherwise directed against a person’s sexuality using force, by any one regardless of their relationship to the victim in any setting including home, school, and work, (Krug, Mercy, Dahlberg, & Zwi, 2002). It involves actions that range from verbal harassment to forced penetration, with various types of social intimidation. Sexual violence is a common phenomenon and occurs worldwide.
Data available suggests that in some countries one in five women report sexual violence by an intimate partner and up to a third of girls report forced sexual initiation (Odu, Falana, & Olotu, 2014) Sexual assault encompasses a range of acts, including coerced sex in marriage and dating relationships, rape by strangers, organized rape in war, sexual harassment (including demands of sex for jobs or school grades), and rape of children, trafficking of women and girls, female genital mutilation, and forced exposure to pornography. It is any act (verbal and/or physical) which breaks a person’s trust and/or safety and is sexual in nature (Dahlberg & Krug, 2002).
Adolescent women are at a higher risk for sexual violence than any other age group. Globally 40-47 percent of sexual violence is done against girls age 15 and younger. Child sexual abuse accounts for 7% to 8% of the mental health disease burden amongst females globally (Degue et al, 2014).Studies shows that a large number of date/acquaintance rape accounts for major cases of sexual violence. Poor awareness of the menace among this age group is a major identified risk factors increasing their vulnerability (CDC, 2014). Due to past or ongoing sexual abuse, abused teens are more likely than their non-abused peers to participate in “delinquent” teenage behaviors including those which result in social problems, conflict with authority, early sexual behavior, and eating problems, teenage pregnancy, and other high risk behaviors. (Darlinghton 2014). It is also note worthy that Most reported cases of sexual violence in Nigeria happens to victims of less than 18 years of age (Adepoju, 2012)
Thus, putting Adolescents at a greater risk of victimization in sexual violence issues. In preventing this menace efforts must be made to reach both the perpetrators and the victims. This is because programs planned towards creating awareness on sexual violence would probably reduce perpetrators choice of committing sexual violence crimes and victims risk of falling into such acts. Therefore assessing the knowledge and experiences of adolescents is imperative in gathering baseline data that would aid appropriate intervention program that is aimed at primarily preventing sexual violence incidence in a developing country like Nigeria were resources to manage cases are limited.
- Statement of the Problem
Everyday at least five children die from child sexual abuse. It is reported that most of those affected are within the age of 5 years and 18 years. It is estimated that every incident of child sexual abuse cost the victim and society at least $99,000 annually rape ranges from $47,000 to $60,000.(Bloom, 2005)
In Nigeria for instance, there has been a daily report of one form of child sexual violence in the news media. Global rights, an NGO, working to stop sexual violence in Nigeria, reported in 2016, that one in four girls and one in ten boys have been sexually abused before age 18.
The increase rate of terrorism especially in the northern part as been reported to be a predictor of increase incidence of child sexual violence (UNICEF, 2016 ). Poor knowledge about sexual violence, what to do after it occurs and knowledge about nearest resource centers as well as other risky behaviors have been associated with its prevalence and complications such as unwanted pregnancy and HIV/AIDS among this age group (Misganaw & Worku, 2013).
Though several studies have been done on sexual violence, its prevalence, and prevention among adolescents, most studies however that has been done on knowledge focuses on college age groups ( older youths). Very little is known about what do adolescents males and females truly know about sexual violence, what risk factors contributes to the incidence, where to turn to for help in cases of emergencies and what their experiences is. This study would therefore asses the knowledge and experiences of adolescents on sexual violence. This would provide baseline information that would help in the fight against sexual violence especially among adolescents since it would give useful insight to appropriate interventions in preventing sexual violence among this group.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to assess the knowledge and experiences of sexual violence among adolescents in Ile Ife.
The specific objectives are to;
- assess the level of knowledge of adolescents on sexual violence.
- asses the level of knowledge of risk reduction measures in preventing sexual violence.
- explore the experiences of sexual violence among adolescents in Ife Central local Government area.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the level of knowledge of adolescents on sexual violence?
- How much knowledge of risk reduction measures in preventing sexual violence do these adolescents have?
- What experiences of sexual violence do adolescents have?
Ho1. There is no significant difference between adolescents’ age and their knowledge of sexual violence at 0.05 level of significance.
Ho2 Adolescents’ parent socio-economic status will not significantly influence their experience of sexual violence at 0.05 level of significance
Ho3 There is no significant correlation between adolescent’s knowledge and their experience of sexual violence. At 0.05 level of significance
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study was descriptive in nature, and would make an attempt to assess the knowledge and experiences of adolescents on sexual violence in the four selected high schools. Four high schools was used so as to cut across various ages of adolescents in Ife Central local government. The researcher would use a descriptive cross sectional design to assess what adolescents know about sexual violence as well as what their experiences is.This study focused mainly on adolescents that are currently in school, whose ages are between twelve and eighteen years of age. The variables was assessed using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Findings from this study would contribute to knowledge and provide baseline data that would be used to enhance future studies as well as planning of appropriate intervention against sexual violence`. The greater demand to ensure a violence free society, the more the need to increases researches that focuses on increasing knowledge at the primary level. The school environment is a major place in the life of the adolescents were both moral and social norms are learnt. Recommendations that were derived from the findings of this study will guide researchers, policy makers, administrators and other stakeholders in the fight against sexual violence, epidemic in developing appropriate related sexual violence reduction programmes that would improve the quality of life of our youths.
It would also broaden the horizon of the researcher in the area of research process in general as well as sexual violence research in particular because it is an area of interest that may serve as a career path.
1.8 Justification for the Study
Sexual violence is common among adolescents and place them on a lifelong trajectory of violence either as victims or perpetrators (Lundgren & Amin, 2015). The adolescent age has longed been proved as a very delicate age. The school is a major part of every community were these adolescents acquire knowledge, thus schools was u Based on the fact that the school setting provides one of the primary settings in which youth come in contact with each other, and based on previous research documenting the high rates of sexual harassment on school grounds (Greytak, 2003) researches shows there are very high prevalence of sexual violence perpetrated among this group. it is most likely that despite this, it is still not clear, how much knowledge adolescents have on sexual violence and what their experience is since most times cases of sexual violence goes unreported due to factors ranging from myths to cultural differences especially in this part of the world. It is therefore important that the experiences and knowledge levels be explored to determine what Adolescents truly know about sexual violence.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
The terms in this section were defined according to their usage and applicability in this study
Knowledge: what adolescents know about sexual violence; its definition, prevalence, predisposing risk, and prevention.
Experiences: This refers to the form of sexual violence have these adolescents experienced over time.
Sexual violence: Any sexual act that is not wanted and perpetrated on an individual without consent is considered a sexual violence in this study.
Prevention: This refers to activities aimed at reducing the predisposition to risks of sexual violence.
Adolescents: Male and Females between ages 13-19 years and presently attending public high schools in Ife Central Local Government of Osun State.
Child Sexual Abuse; Also used inter changeably with Adolescent sexual abuse to mean violence against minors.
DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, eProjectTopics.com are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. eProjectTopics.com is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on eProjectTopics.com is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.