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This study was carried out with the role objective of determining advertising as a source of revenue generation to the broadcast media organization in Nigeria.

The researcher adopted survey research methodology. The researcher also identified the research problems and used them to raised some research questions and for research hypothesis.

Moreover, the survey method of research enabled the researcher to seek for some expert’s opinion on the topic, as well as data collections and sits interpretation.

The literature relating to the topic understudy was reviewed through both primary and secondary sources of literature.

Furthermore, the researcher used 300 respondents as the sample size which was used to represent the population of study. The data collected was analyzed and the hypothesis was also tested.

The findings of the study showed that, advertising is a source of revenue generation to the broadcast media organizations in Nigeria and FRCN, Enugu medium is a typical example. The researcher summarized the topic, drew conclusion and made recommendations based on findings.





My special thanks goes to the Almighty God, in heaven, the omniscience and omnipresent God who made this research work a reality.

Another special thanks goes to my supervisor, Omeje Samuel Okechukwu for his attention, patience and guidance throughout my research study.

I wish to thank my brothers Mr. Makuo Okafor and Samuel Okafor.

My gratitude also goes to all the lecturers who thought me in one way or the other, like, Eze Mark (ESQ), Agbo Ben, Mary Obeagu, Ezinwe Chidi, Anyiaruka, Chuddy, Anigbo Rose, Madu Bob, Omeie Samuel, including my primary and secondary school teachers who brought me up with hard working orientation.

Again, to Fidelis Udenta, the Head of Department and the Director, School of Communication Arts, Pastor, Henry Usonwanne.

Also to my friends in the department, especially those who helped in this research study, like Obetta Kerian, ASMAECS Chiefs Librarian, Bro Ben, Chioma etc.



Title page       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      i

Approval page –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      ii

Dedication       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iii

Abstract   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iv

Acknowledgement   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      v

Table of contents    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vi

List of Tables   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      ix




  • Background of the study – –      –      –      –      1
  • Statement of the research problem       –      –      4
  • Objectives of the study –      –      –      –      –      7
  • Significance of the study – –      –      –      –      8
  • Research questions – –      –      –      –      –      9
  • Research hypotheses –      –      –      –      –      10
  • Theoretical framework –      –      –      –      –      11
  • Scope of the study – –      –      –      –      12
  • Limitation of the study –      –      –      –      –      13
  • Definition of terms – – –      –      –      –      –      13

References      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      17




  • Source of literature – –      –      –      –      –      19
  • Review of relevant literature –      –      –      –      19
  • Summary of literature –      –      –      –      –      30

References      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      31




  • Research design – –      –      –      –      –      –      32
  • Area of study –      –      –      –      –      –      –      33
  • Research population –      –      –      –      –      34
  • Research sample –      –      –      –      –      –      35
  • Sampling technique – –      –      –      –      37
  • Instrument of data collection – –      –      –      38
  • Method of data collection –      –      –      –      39
  • Method of data analysis – – –      –      –      –      39
  • Expected result –      –      –      –      –      –      41

References      –      –      —    –      –      –      –      43



  • Data presentation and analysis – –      –      –      44
  • Analysis of research questions/hypothesis – –      53
  • Discussion of results –      –      –      –      –      56




  • Summary – –      –      –      –      –      –      –      58
  • Conclusion – –      –      –      –      –      –      –      60

Bibliography –  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      62

Appendix –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      65

Questionnaire –      –      –      –      –      –      –      66



Table 1:   Gender distribution of respondents –      –      45

Table 2:   Marital status of respondents  –      –      –      46

Table 3:   Age distribution of respondents      –      –      47

Table 4:   Academic qualification of the respondents –   48

Table 5:   Education qualification The variables that occur for the respondents –  –      –      –      –      –      48

Table 6:   The second variables from the respondents – 49

Table 7:   The third variables from the respondents –     50

Table 8:   the fourth variables from the respondents –   51

Table 9:   The first variables from the respondents –      52

Table 10: The sixth variables from the respondents




  • Background of the Study

The need for advertising in Broadcast Media Organization(s) in Nigeria like in FRCN, Enugu (Medium) as a source of revenue generation cannot be over emphasized.

In Nigeria, all the media o      rganizations needs proper funding and advertisement is a powerful source in which the fund or revenue could be generated to enable the organization, like the FRCN, Enugu to exist and flourish. Advertising does not only generate revenue for a medium (FRCN, Enugu) to grow and be sustained, it also necessitate in boasting the popularity of the medium so that the medium will be constantly used by the publics, marketers and customers to make their ideas, products or goods and services known to the masses.

Furthermore, Rodmani 2006 (page 402) opined …. That … “Advertising is a big business, one that is best understood through an analysis of the client, the agency, the objectives of the advertising and the type of media that are used to fulfill those objective”. Radio is one of those mass media used in gathering, processing and dissemination of information on a number of different social issues. It plays an important role every society, because its reach immediately, portability and cost, effective measure, etc makes it one of those mass media to rackon with, particularly in information dissemination to a greater number of people living in rural areas.  Therefore, there is need for the media to make use of advertising in order to maintain their social responsibilities of information dissemination, awareness creation, education, entertainment etc.

Moreover, one of the reasons the advertising agencies seek for well known mass media to advertise their client’s products, services or ideas is to build viewers, readers and listeners interest in an increasingly fragmented market. Although, advertising has been a part of mass media since the invention of printing press (moveable type) in 1440’s by Gohannes Gutenberg, the target today still remains to get customers or the target audience’s attention to the advertising massagers and propel them to react positively.

Again, one of the means through which mass media generate revenue in advert is development of advertising industries. Although there is an argument that in the process of seeking for revenue, some media houses in Nigeria are beyond news commercialization in the name of advertising. Some time, makes it very difficult to differentiate between the former and the later. But, it is axiomatic to say that no medium like (FRCN) will exist or continue to operate properly in this contemporary global economic crisis without sourcing revenue, through advertising.

Raph E. Hanson (2005: 298) in his book, mass communication living in a media world” asserted, that…..

……”One element of the media that is almost incapable is advertising….. Advertising makes it possible the vast array of inexpensive media that exist in the United States. But there is more to advertising than just cheep media. Advertising drives the size and diversity of the economy by telling the consumers the benefits they can expect from using a new computer, the image they will project by wearing a brand of clothing or driving a particular car”.

In this research study, the major issue at stake is the use of advertising as a source of revenue generation to broadcast media in Nigeria to enhance or sustain proper activities, as in Federal Radio Corporation, Enugu (medium). Therefore, it is very good or important for the FRCN, Enugu to make use of advertising to enable the management generate enough revenue to meet-up their various targets or objectives.  And, to necessitate the sustenance of the media houses through advert, there must be a cordial relationship between the media and the targeted audience whom the media messages are meant for.


  • Statement of the Research Problem

Many business organizations in Nigeria today are confronted with a lot of challenges, precisely, economic hardship. This hardship has culminated to the inability of the organizations, (especially media organizations) to fulfill their financial obligations.  Unanimously, inadequate fund constitutes barrier to an organization’s growth. But, the major challenge has always been, knowing and effectively employing a powerful means of generating revenue to sustain the organization. And in mass media, one of the (sources) strategies of revenue generation is advertisement. Therefore, it is as a result of this backdrop that the need to understand whether advertising is source of revenue generation to the mass broadcast media becomes the issue at stake in this study. It is also important to assess the rate in which FRCN, Eugu (medium) has used advertising to generate or source revenue and also known it advertising has increased the profit of mass media in Nigeria.

Furthermore, the notion of advertising being intrusive (in nature) demands our culture and it is misleading will be of great important to us because the role of advertising in our society is alarming.  Some of those roles include, information, education, increasement of public awareness on new products, rebranded products etc. In the same vain, Ikechukwu Nwosu (1990: 239) in his book, mass communication and National Development asserted, that in Nigeria, advertising is still grossly misunderstood and unrealized. This unfortunate, because… We need to know (and) understand better and utilize advertising more in Nigeria, towards recovery and growth of economy.

Moreover, it is axiomatic to say that advertising is needed by broadcast media, as in FRCN, Enugu to see if their revenue generation will increase as a result of their involvement in advertising or not. An the best way to meet up with this need is through proper flow of information between broadcast media and other social institutions, corporate bodies, individuals and the government. Eteli E.C (2007:96) in his book titled “The challenges of media Gate keeping in Nigeria asserted thus”

The relationship between mass media and institutions is possible only through the media’s transaction with audience and the audience’s media relationship is possible to separate from the institution of the society in which those audience reside.

Therefore, for the broadcast media to source or generate revenue through advertising, there must be a cordial relationship between the broadcast media and the target audience in which the advert messages dare meant.


  • Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are:-

  • To find out if advertising is a source of revenue generation to broadcast media organization in Nigerian.
  • To find out, if FRCN, Enugu medium generate revenue through advertising.
  • To determine if advertising misleads.
  • To determine whether broadcast media commercialize news in the name of advertising or not.
  • To determine whether broadcast media commercialize news in the name of advertising or not.
  • To determine if advertising improves the socio-political and economic well-being of Nigerians or not.
  • To make recommendations for policy formulation and further studies on the topic.


  • Significance of the Study

This research work or study will be of great benefit to broadcast media operators/practitioners in Nigeria precisely, Enugu State broadcast media practitioners.  It will also help the economic planners in Nigeria on how to consider advertising (as) a source of revenue generation. Again, the study will enable the advertisers and their clients or target audience to make use of appropriate media in knowing about the product of their choice.

Moreover, the study will also benefit future researchers by enabling them to add more data to the ones they have, especially, while studying how advertising can be used to (source or) generate revenue for the sustenance of broadcast media in Nigeria.


  • Research Questions

The researcher’s research questions, basically on the objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. Is advertising a source of revenue generation to the broadcast media organizations in Nigeria?
  2. Do FRCN, Enugu (medium) generate enough revenue through advertising?
  3. Is advertising misleading
  4. Do broadcast media organizations in Nigeria commercialize news in the name of advertising?
  5. Do advertising improve the socio-political and economic well-being of Nigerians?
  6. Can broadcast media organizations survive without advertising?



  • Research Hypotheses

H1:  Advertising is a source of revenue generation to the broadcast media organizations in Nigeria.

Ho:  Advertising is not a source of revenue generation to the broadcast media in Nigeria.

H2:  FRCN, Enugu generates enough revenue through advertising

Ho:  FRCN, Enugu do not generate enough revenue through advertising.

H3:  Advertising is misleading

Ho:  Advertising is not misleading.

H4:  Broadcast organization in Nigeria commercialize news in the name of advertising.

Ho:  Broadcast media organizations in Nigeria do not commercialize new in the name of advertising.

H5:  Advertising improves the socio-political and economic well-being of Nigerians.

Ho:  Advertising do not improve the socio-political and economic well-being of Nigerians.

H6:  Broadcast media organizations can survive without advertising.

Ho:  Broadcast media organizations cannot survive without advertising.


  • Theoretical framework

In this research study, agenda – setting theory is the theoretical framework.

Agenda-setting theory is one of the media effect theories propounded by Walter Lipman in 1922.

According to Polarin (1998), “Agenda-setting theory implies that the mass media predetermine issues that are regarded as important at a given time in given society”.

Furthermore, Ben Agbo, Ifeanyi Ojobor and Chidi Ezinwa (2010 155) in their book titled Issues in Development Communication, Agenda Setting theory presupposes that mass media set agenda for the audience. They further noted that according to Nwosu (1990: 345), Agenda Setting originated from Cohen’s assertion that the press may not be particularly successful in telling people what to think about but it is sunningly successful in telling its readers (audience) what to think about.  Agenda setting research has shown that in many cases, the people do perceive some issues as being important, following the nature of coverage given to those issues by the media.

Therefore, the relevance of Agenda setting to this study implies that the broadcast media organizations in Nigeria, especially FRCN, Enugu sets agenda to their audience through advertising messages. And through advertising, they generate revenue for their survival.

At this juncture, it could be noted that the broadcast media organizations in Nigeria engage in advertising activities, not only for revenue generation but, also as a means of getting agenda for their audience on products, services, ideas etc.

  • Scope of the Study

The scope of this study covers all the broadcast media in Nigeria, precisely those in Enugu State (both advertisers and the public). But, due to some constraints in which researchers encounter, the scope will be centred on FRCN, Enugu station.


  • Limitations of the Study

This research work was expected to come up with a better result on “Advertising as a source of Revenue generation to Broadcast Media Organization” but there are (were) certain limitation(s) as follows:

  • Finance: This study is very interesting but due to the fact that the researcher is a student with limited finance, come up with a perfect result become difficult.
  • Time Constraint: In all activities of man, time plays a very important role. The researcher has a limited time.


  • Definition of Terms


       In this sub-topic, the major terms which formed the research topic were defined conceptually and operationally in order to guide the reader against derailed interpretation. Those words or phrases (terms) include:


Conceptual:   Any paid form of non-personal communication, about an organization, prudent, service or idea by an identified sponsor.

Operationally: Advertising refers messages via product, service or idea carried out by broadcast media, precisely, FRCN, Enugu State, to source or generate revenue.


Conceptually: A place, person or thing that you et something from.

Operational: Source refers to a place or means through which broadcast media organization in Nigeria get or generate revenue.




Conceptual: The money that a government receives from taxes or that an organization etc receives from its business.

Operationally: Revenue refers to the money in which broadcast media organization in Nigeria, like FRCN, Enugu (medium) receive through advertising.


Conceptual: To produce or create something.

Operation: Generate refers to the production or creation of money through advertising by broadcast media organization in Nigeria.


Conceptual: To send out programmes on television or radio.

Operational: Broadcast refers to the advertising programmes in which FRCN, Enugu send(s) out.


Conceptual: The main ways that large numbers of people receive information and entertainment, that is television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

Operationally: Media refers to those channel in which large numbers of people receive advertising messages that are been paid for, precisely, FRCN Enugu (medium).


Conceptual: A group of people who form a business, club etc together in order to achieve a particular aim.

Operationally: Organization refers to mass media institutions that send out programmes in form of advertising messages on products, services or ideas particularly, FRCN Enugu (medium) in order to generate revenue for their progress.

FRCN:           Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria.


Eze, Mark (2008). Fundamentals of Communication Theories, Enugu: His Glory Publications.


Nodu, Levi Chiamaka (2006). Research in communication and other Behavioural Science (Principles, Methods, and Issues), Enugu: Rhyce Kerex Publishers.


Agbo, Ben, Ifeanyi Ojobor and Ezinwa Chudi (2010). Issues in Development Communication, Enugu: John Jacob’s Classic Publishers Ltd.


Eze, Mark (2008). Dynamics of Communication Research, Enugu: Chest on Agency Ltd.


Rodman, G. (2006). Mass Media in a Changing World (History, Industry and Controversy), Boston: McGraw Hill.


Ekeli, E.O. (2007). The Challenge of Media Gate Keeping in Nigeria, Nsukka: Maurice Production Services Ltd in Association with Communication Studies Forum (CSF).


Raph, E.H. (2005). Mass communication, Living in a Media World, Boston: McGraw Hill.


Rotimi, W.O. (2004). Advertising and Industrial Conflict in Nigeria’s University Educational Sub-Sector in Communication, Enugu: Prince Target Ltd.


Nwosu, I.E. (1990). Mass Communication and National Development, Aba: Frontier Publishers Ltd.


Folorin, B. (1998). Theories of Mass Communication: An Introductory Text, Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers Nigeria Limited.


Hornby, A.S. (2010). Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, International Student’s Edition (new 8th Edition), New York: Oxford University Press.


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