- BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Performance according to oxford advanced learners dictionary (Hornby, 2000) is how well or how badly you do something (ABU 2004) has also described performance as the “effectiveness” and “efficiency” of the workers in achieving individual goods and organizational effectiveness.
Evaluation on the other hand is forming an opinion of the amount, value or quality of something after thinking about it carefully while productively is the rate at which a worker produces goods and the amount produced compared with hoe much time work and money is needed to produce them.
Performance evaluation is system which provides organizations with a means of identifying not only what people’s performances levels are but in which areas, such performance needs to improves, if the human resources utility is to maximized (Abu 2004).
Ebreo (2004) asserts that employee performance makes the greatest impact in any business. Failure to deliver expected results can greatly affect productivity, quality and profitability. Most managers attribute employee performance to knowledge, skills and attitude. There are however more factors that affect performance than these, which if not met may compromise effective performance.
He further viewed that the person to do the job should be able to understand and accept which and what kind of control are in place. Lack of control can lead to inadequate performance, lack of understanding can also lead to inadequate performance. At the unset, it should be agreed between both the employer and employee. What timeline to follow, how productivity and quality is going to be measured and how this will impact the persons performance. It should also be made clear how progress is going to be monitored and what to do if performance does not meet expectations.
Performance depends on various factors but the most important factor is training, which enhances the capabilities of employees (Raja, Furqan & Khan, 2011). Employees who have more on the job experience tends to perform better because there is an increase in the both their skills and competencies resulting from more on the job experience (Fakhar & Khan, 2008).
Training also has impact on the return on investment since the organizational performance depends on employee performance because human resource capital of organization plays an important role in the growth and development of such organization. So to improve the organizational performance and the employee performance, training is given to the employee of the organization, whereas, employees’ development can be defined as a process where the employees with the support of the employer undergo various training programs to enhance their skills and acquire updated knowledge and learning (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart & Wright 2004). Consequently, employee development is a joint initiative of the employee as well as the employer to upgrade the existing skills and knowledge of the employee, thus competency is enriched by training and development.
On the other hand, organizational performance refers to those attitudes’ that have been assessed or measured as to their contribution to organizational goals (Cook & Hunsaker, 2001). The behavior or attitude indicated the approach and skills of the management, especially line management that helps them to use the resources successfully and professionally with competency. However, the labour union can act as the bridge between the employees and the management of the organization by negotiating for better welfare packages for the employees, which include their periodic training, promotion and development. Existing labour literature has shown that employees tend to put in their best, work effectively and efficiently if the work environment is conducive and the management and corporate executives demonstrate the flexibility that they often demand of their employees (Fernández, 2003). This is based on the contention that the employment challenge does not only arise due to low levels of education, but also due to a mismatch between skills produced and skills demanded in the labour market. The challenges associated with the changing nature of work and the workplace environment is as real for the campus as elsewhere. Rapid change requires a skilled and knowledgeable workforce with employees who are adaptive, flexible, and focused on the future. Hence, to address this challenge requires an ‘active and aggressive’ intervention on both sides of the labour market (Webster, et al., 2008).
Despite the importance of training and manpower development in employee productivity and organizational performance, training programs are not sufficiently supported by organizations in Nigeria (Obi-Anike &Ekwe, 2014). These organizations consider the money they will spend on
their training programs as waste rather than investment. They fail to foresee the desirability of continuous training and development of their employees in order to promote the efficiency and effectiveness of their organizations. Those that attempt to conduct trainings for their employees do so in an ad- hoc and haphazard manner, and as such, training in those organizations is more or less unplanned and unsystematic. Although there are volume of empirical studies on the effect of training and development on employee’s productivity and organizational performance, the existing evidence suggests that research in this area is promising. In Nigeria however, majority of these studies were conducted outside the educational sector. Meanwhile, most of the challenges that had threatened the standard of teaching and learning in educational sector in Nigeria had been squarely blamed on inadequate manpower.
Performance management is very important to both employers and employees. From the employer’s prospective, it is vital to understand how your employees contribute to the objectives of the organization. Muhammad (2013) asserts that organizations can achieve their goals and objectives only through the combined efforts of their employees, and it is the task of management to get work done. Employee performance management is fundamental to the effective operation of organizations. Performance management is an integral part of the employees and organizations relationship. It is essentially an integrating activity that permeates every part of the operations of an organization” (Mullines, 2007).
Rajesh and Nishant (2013)maintain that “performance management is a broad concept that involves understanding and acting on the performance issues at each level of the organization, from individuals, teams and departments to the organization itself”. These issues include leadership, decision making, motivation, encouraging innovation and risk taking among others. “Performance management is a continuous process of identifying, measuring and developing the performance of individuals and teams and aligning performance with the strategic goals of the organization, and it is the systematic description of an employee’s strengths and weaknesses” (Rajesh and Nishant, 2013). Performance management is very important to both employers and employees. From the employer’s prospective, it is vital to understand how employees contribute to the objectives of the organization. A good performance management system enables the organization to understand how its employees are currently performing. Muhammad (2013) posits that “performance management allows organizations to undertake a thorough assessment of the training needs of their employees, set development plans and its gives, them the option of using the result of the performance management process to influence an individuals remuneration”. Organizations can achieve their goals and objectives only through the combined efforts of their employees, and it is the task of management to get work done (Muhammad 2013). Employee performance management is fundamental to the effective operation of organizations. According to Mullines (2007), performance management is an integral part of the employees and organizations relationship and” it is essentially an integrating activity that permeates every part of the operations of an organization”.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Most of the organizations have used performance appraisal as compared to performance management in which the focus is made on comparison between the performance standards being made by the organization and the actual productivity of employees, while no one actually compares the performance against employees’ objectives. This affects the achievement of employee objectives negatively. Consequently, it is pertinent to state that the nature or structure of the organization can be a varying factor in determining the nature and criteria of the performance management system (Jamil & Mohammed, 2011). Thus, there is need for managers to create a vivid system that is linked to employee strategy, and appropriate in measuring acceptable and non-acceptable behaviour for improved organization productivity.
Others like Homayounizadpanah and Baqerkord (2012), Chompukum (2006), Ahmad (2012) and Tanvi Newaz (2012) analysis performance and productivity in organization, efficiency, effectiveness, employee culture and psychological contract. It is obvious that none of the studies have examined performance in relation to employee productivity in the ministry of Agriculture.
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions guided this study.
- To what extent does performance and productivity in organization?
- What is the effect of performance on the productivity of Ministry of Agriculture?
- To what degree does performance review influence workers productivity?
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the analysis of performance and productivity in organization. The specific objectives include to:
- To analysis performance and productivity in organization?
- To examine the effect of performance on the productivity of Ministry of Agriculture?
- To identify the degree which performance review influence workers productivity?
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
The under-listed tentative statements were formulated to guide this study.
Ho: performance on the productivity has significant on the ministry of Agriculture.
Ho: performance on the productivity has no significant on the ministry of Agriculture
Ho: Performance review has no significant effect on workers productivity
Ho: Performance review has significant effect on workers productivity
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research work is of great relevance to the society at large. This is applicable to the government, the readers of this research work and to the researcher.
The benefit of this research work to the government is that by the end of the research, the weak-points and short – comings of all the sectors of the nation would be pinpointed and displayed based on findings, thereby proffering solution to the problem.
To the reader, they will be upgraded intellectually and also will be highly informed of the up and doings of the current administration. It will also give the reader’s insight on how the women participate in politics and policy making of the nation, also partake in the political affairs of the country geared towards the achievement of organizational productivity.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The essence of this research work is to study analysis of performance and productivity in organization. The research intends to focus on the ministry of Agriculture.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The following are constraints/ limitation to this research work.
In the course of writing and carrying out this project work, the research encountered many difficulties; some errors in the results of the research and from external sources of data collection. These are factors standing as constraints thereby limiting the effect of the research result.
Among these are, time finance , scope and use of wrong statistics in data analysis, due to time limit, the research work is a time consuming one. A lot of time is taken to observe the subjects.
Most times the behaviour of the staff changes even when they are aware that they are being observed by the researcher, this is by taking their behavior. The researcher also observed that these senior staff some time give true and false information in order to cover their branches.
1.9 OPERATIONALIZATION/DEFINITION OF TERMS
Organization: an organization is a structural process of interaction. It is made up of group of people bound together to provide unity of action of the achievement of a predetermined objectives.
Training:, training is an organizational effort aimed at helping an employee acquire basic skill required for the effectively execution of the function for which he was hired”.
Productivity: Efficiency in protection of life and properties or in societal measure by comparing the amount of peace produced with the time taken.
Public Service: This is the service of the federation or state in respect of any capacity including staff of national and state assembly, judiciary and commission established by government, statutory corporation, government, educational institution, government owned companies, armed forces, police and staff.
System: A group of things or parts working together as a whole. A set of ideas, theories, procedure etc. according to which it is done.
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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