This research work was undertaken with a view to ascertaining community development in Imo state of Nigeria with a focus non Owerri north local government area as a case study. The work looked critically (in question) towards community development within its area of jurisdiction. In doing this, the researcher based his study on the provision of the 1976 local government reform in Nigeria which made community development one of the explicit functions of the local government councils. In carrying out the research, primary and secondary data were used. Related literature were reviewed (secondary data chapter 2) and questionnaire were equally prepared and administered to local government functionaries (primary data chapter 4). The technique use in analyzing the primary data is the chi-square (x2). The finding of the research was reached using the result of the tested hypothesis. For the analysis, it was found that many factors act as stumbling blocks on the way of community development in Owerri north local government area and the state general.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – v
Table of contents – – – – – – – – vi
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – 6
1.3 Objectives of the study – – – – – – 7
1.4 Research question – – – – – – – 8
1.5 Statement of hypothesis – – – – – – 9
1.6 Significance of the study – – – – – – 11
1.7 Scope of the study – – – – – – – 12
1.8 Limitations of the study – – – – – – 12
1.9 Definition of terms – – – – – – – 13
2.0 Literature review – – – – — – – 15
2.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – – 15
2.2 Concept and definition of community development- 16
2.3 Historical background of community
development as obtained in Nigeria – – – – 19
2.4 Role of local government council in community
Development – – – – – – – – 24
2.5 Major constraints in Owerri north – – – – 26
2.6 Achievements of Owerri north – – – – – 29
2.7 Implementation strategies to rural development – 31
References – – – — – – – – — 33
3.0 Research design and methodology – – – – 34
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 34
3.2 Research design – – – – – – – 35
3.3 Methods of data collection – – – – – 35
3.4 Population and sample size – – – – 36
3.5 Sample techniques – – – – – – – 36
3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument – 38
3.7 Method of data analysis – – – – – – 38
4.0 Presentation and analysis of data – – – – 40
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 40
4.2 Presentation of data – – – – – – – 41
4.3 Analysis of data – – – – – – – 54
4.4 Test of hypothesis – – – – – – – 55
4.5 Interpretation of data- – – – – – – 59
5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendations- – – 61
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 61
5.2 Summary of finding – – – – – – – 62
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 63
5.4 Recommendations – – – – – – – 65
Reference – – – – – – – – 67
Appendix – – – – – – – – – 70
Questionnaire – – — – – – – – 71
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Local governments have and will continue to be one of the prime moves of development in different parts of the world and their importance and impact on daily activities of citizens can not be over emphasized.
The terms local government refers to a political authority set up by a nation or state as a subordinate authority for the purpose of dispensing or decentralizing polities power. In the English sense, it means local self government.
Local government is a political sub-division of a national government or in federal system, a sub-division of regional government in fact, local government administration is so intentioned with community development that any discussion on one out of necessity involves the other. This is because local government in essence, was created solely to bring development to the community at the grass root.
Community development is not a new ideology. It is defined as a process by which the efforts of the people themselves are linked with those of governmental authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities to integrate them into life of the action and to enable them to contribute fully to the national progress. Also the role of local government in the promotion of development at the local level is dearly recognized as one of the underlying basis of the 1976 local government reforms which emphasized that none of the principal objectives of local government is to mobilize human and material resources through the involvement of members of the public in the promotion of local government.
Many communities had built school, constructed roads and bridges and organized higher education, scholarship schemes for their children etc. Community development as we recognize today is based on and has grown out of the past. What is new is that these principles are now becoming more widely recognize than ever before. The principles of community development are not new, but it is the emphasis which makes almost a revolutionary. The concept of community development is based on the faith. In the ability of people to learn how to help themselves attain an improved standard of living building better communities taking one step at a time.
In drawing up the blue print for rural development, government of Imo state aims primary at sensitizing and mobilizing the people are the grass root level and deliberately and actively involving them in effective community development, encouraging, integrated and multi-dimension approach to community development for the government to achieve the grass roots development, it must get closer to the people.
ORGANIZATION OF OWERRI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Owerri urban council was created in 1976, then in 1991 Owerri north and south local governments was carried out of the main/former Imo state local government area. The council is consist of six (6) major departments personnel; health work; financial; agriculture and education and development. The council is made up of two sets of staff.
The executive and the carrier officers. At the apex of the organization, the chairman is the chief executive and the controller of both men and materials including finances.
Below his is the vice chairman who assist and co-ordinate the activities delegated to him from time to time. Below their levels are the four line supervisors charged o agric; health, education, community development and works respectively. Both the chairman and the supervisors are the policy maker as far as the council is concerned.
On the other hand, the local government service commission if the employer of all carrier officers (civil servants) under this local government system. At the apex of the carrier officers is the secretary director of personnel who is in charge of the day to day administration. Below him is a deputy secretary who co-ordinate the activities of both senior and the junior staff including other functions in his schedule. The internal auditor occupies a central position midway between the carrier officers and the executive chairman. His is the alarm clock of the council especially when the envisages that anything goes wrong with the expenditure of government fund. He may raise an audit alarm. Below this levels are the line carrier staff known as heads of department. Each occupying specific department such as agric, 1-6 above. Each HOD maintains discipline within his area, check the attendant and roll call and distribute functions amongst the rank and file senior and junior staff under him.
1.2 STATEMENTS OF PROBLEMS
For our easy understanding in this study the researcher stated some of the problems of the local government community development. The problems are:
- Poor internal revenue generation as a factor militating against community development of the present local government area.
- Diverting of funds meant for community development to other areas.
- Poor provision of water, good roads and health service to the people in the community.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- The essence of local government is to bring about sustained development at the grass root level
- To find effective ways of stimulating teaching and helping people to adopt new methods and to learn new skills
- To ensure the preservative of the community spirit
- To find out if there are wider political representation
- To determine if there are cheaper service
- Establishing a good base for the collecting of basic statistical information necessary for economic planning.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In the course of carrying out the research the following research questions were formulated.
- What is the relevance of revenue and expenditure to local government in Nigeria.
- What are the implications of this revenue to the administration of local government and community development.
- To what extent is the derivation principle been applied to revenue and expenditure pattern of local government.
- How can constitutional provision create problem in the application of revenue sharing formula to local government administration.
- How can Nigeria revolve an appropriate revenue and expenditure pattern of local government. In the course of developing this research work the following hypothesis have been formulated.
- Has the evenly distribution of research helped in the development of community areas?
- Has the dividends of democracy through local government helps in the upliftment of community development?
- Is democracy an absolute means of developing a community areas?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
Hi: There is relationship between revenue and expenditure pattern in local government administration.
Ho: There is no relationship between revenue and expenditure pattern in local government administration.
Hi: The survival of local government is in doubt without the assistance of federal government.
Ho: The survival of local government is not in doubt without the assistance of federal government.
Hi: There is a relationship between internal control and efficient management of resources/funds.
Ho: There is no relationship between internal control and efficient management of resources/funds.
Hi: Budgetary instrument is very vital in local government.
Ho: Budgetary instrument is not very vital in local government.
Hi: Evenly distribution of resources does not helped in the development of community areas.
Ho: Evenly distribution of resources helped in the development of community areas.
Hi: Dividends of democracy through local government cannot helps in the upliftment of community development.
Ho: Dividends of democracy through local government helps in the upliftment of community development.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The local state government will be able to apply the out come of the study in their functions. The people that will benefit from the study are the staff of Owerri north local government and the people i.e villages of Owerri north local government. Those systems should be encourage in other to achieve the goals and objective of the study especially in the area of community development.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is aimed at studying of the efforts of local government councils towards community development in Imo state and Owerri north local government in particular.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
It is therefore, pertinent to point out that because of time, space or distance and financial constraints, the study is limited only to Owerri north local government area. This scope is justified by the fact that it is practically impossible for the research to take into this study all efforts made towards community development in the country. The difficulties that were overcome during the process of this research work are: time constraints, the problem of time was not to the advantages of the researcher and thus did not allow for more comprehensive study of this piece.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following from are defined as they are used in this study.
The term local government: it refers to a political authority set up by a nation or state as a subordinate authority for the purposes of dispensing or decentralizing power.
Local government is a political sub-division of a national government or in federal system, a sub-division of regional government in fact, local government administration is so intentioned with community development that any discussion on one out of necessity involves the other. Eastern Nigeria local government law (1960).
Community development – it is defined as a process by which the efforts of the people themselves are linked with those of governmental authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities, to integrate them into life of the action and to enable them to contribute fully to the national progress. Boniface I Owamalam (1978) journal for community development.
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