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Pollutant emissions in Enugu urban are generally from the combustion of petroleum products and to a negligible extent, solid waste disposal by open burning.

The quantity of petroleum products consumed within Enugu urban was obtained in the spot” from the functional fuel stations in the area.

The results showed that Nitrogen Oxide (No) has the highest annual concentration of 2309.11mg/m3.  next is particulates (1075.8 mg/m3), hydrocarbons (378.32mg/m3), sulphur dioxide (1705.8mg/m3), and lastly, carbon monoxide (85.05mg/m3).

A comparison of pollutant concentrations with WHO quality standards showed that pollutant emissions within the study area (Enugu Urban) are well within safe limits although the pollutant concentrations will increase as the population and economy continue to grow.

Several recommendations were proferred towards the effective control of pollutant emissions into the study area.  these include the improvement of the efficiency of fuels, the remobilization of automobile engines, establishment of more road network and traffic decongestion, and the promulgation of anti-air pollutant laws.

This emission inventory is recommend for the planning and development of this great metropolitan area called Enugu.












Approval page                                                                        iii

Dedication                                                                              iv

Acknowledgment                                                                   v

Abstract                                                                                  vi

Table of contents                                                                   viii



1.0    Introduction                                                                   1

1.1a  Air pollution                                                                   1

1.1b  Emission factors and Emission Inventory                   2

  • Scope of research 3
  • Data collection 4
  • Limitations 4



2.0    Literature Review                                                         6

  • History of pollutants 6
  • Pollution 13
  • Types of pollution 14
  • Air pollution 14
  • Particulates 20
  • Hydrocarbons 27
  • Carbon monoxide 33
  • C02 as a pollutant 36
  • Oxides of sulphur 40
  • Oxides of nitrogen                                             47

2.32            Water pollution                                                   58

2.33            Land pollution                                                     83

  • Noise pollution                                                 88



3.0    Methodology                                                                 100

  • Emission inventory of pollutants

from petroleum products.                                           100

  • Concentration of pollutants (mg/m3) 103



Discussion                                                                              108



Conclusion                                                                             113



Recommendation                                                                  115

Reference                                                                               117

Appendix                                                                                119





Though most people tend to associate air pollution problems with the advent of the industrial revolution, such problems in one form or another have plagued the human race for centuries.  The earliest pollutants noted in the atmosphere were probably of natural origin: Smoke, fumes, ash and gases from volcanoes and forest fires, sand and dust from windstorms in arid regions; fog in humid, low-lying areas; and natural terpenehazes from pine trees in mountainous regions were part of our environment long before human induced (anthropogenic) problems came on the scene.

Indeed, several of the above-mentioned natural problems would surely have qualified as “air pollution” under this generally accepted definition of pollution of ambient, or outdoor air:

“Air pollution is the presence in the outdoor

atmosphere of one or more air contaminants

(ie dust, fumes, mist, odour, smoke or vapour)

in sufficient quantities of such characteristics,

and of such duration as to be or to threaten

to be injurious to human, plant, or animal

life, or to property, or which reasonably

interferes with the comfortable enjoyment….

produce, their projected emission of pollutants and the frequency duration, and relative contribution of pollutant emissions from each source.


          Emission Inventories Are Used To:-
  1. Plan developments in metropolitan areas.
  2. Establish sampling programs and interpret the results of sampling activities
  3. Establish emission standards
  4. Provide basic input for simulation models.
  5. Estimate air pollutant concentrations with various metrological conditions.
  6. Establish baseline levels of air pollutant concentrations and to relate these to future trends.
  7. Indicate seasonal and geographical distribution of air pollutants in a study area,
  8. Assist in establishing priorities for a control programme.


The proposed research is designed to obtain an emission inventory of pollutants in Enugu metropolis.

Emphasis will be placed on:

  1. The identification and classification of the types of pollutants emitted into the community.
  2. The identification and classification of the sources of these pollutants
  3. The determination of the quantity and quality of the material being handled, processed or burned.
  4. The obtaining of emission factors of these materials and thus computing the rate of emission.
  5. The comparism of the inventory with National ambient air quality standards.
  6. The effect of pollutants on human health, plants, and on materials; and
  7. The global implications of air pollution.



Relevant data figures and information for this study were collected from the Enugu State Environment Protection Agency-ENSEPA (emission factors for solid waste), by the use of questionnaires through personal interviews from field surveys and from literature sources.



During the course of this study certain problems were encountered.  These problems include:-

  1. Inexistence of records of the quantity of solid waste generated/disposed off in Enugu
  2. Difficulty in obtaining emission factors.
  3. Difficulty in determining the exact quantity of petroleum products consumed within Enugu metropolis


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