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This work focused to investigate the challenges of modern automation on Job performance of Public Servants (A study of workers of Federal Polytechnic, Oko). the problem of the topic includes that, one of the main causes of poor performance among Public Servants n most Organizations is their abject lack of communication Technology Skills. The main objective of the study is to investigate the challenges of modern automation on the Job performance of Public Servants, other specific objectives is to determine the ICT resources available for workers in Federal Polytechnic, Oko and ascertain the ICT skills required by workers in Federal Polytechnic, Oko. The research questions are in-line with the objectives of the study. Related, scholarly works were reviewed. Change acceptance theory propounded by Himme Farb in 1974 was adopted. Descriptive design was employed, the population was Seven Hundred (700). Yaro Yamane statistical formular was used to carry out the sample size and the sample size was two hundred and fifty-five (255). The research distributed Two Hundred and Twenty Five (225) questionnaires and retrieved Two Hundred and Forty Five (245) which was used for data analysis and simple percentage was also used for data analysis. The findings of the study includes, that management of Federal Polytechnic, Oko have been able to provide desktop Computers, photocopy, fax and automated teller machines for the workers and special skills acquired by the workers will help to improve their efficiency  on the course of carrying out their duties. Therefore, it was concluded that, management should ensure that those modern automation provided for the workers should be kept in a safe condition so that the usage duration will be minimized and the management of Federal Polytechnic, Oko should establish ICT training centre.













Cover page                                                                                                               i

Title Page:                                                                                                                ii

Approval Page:                                                                                                       iii

Declaration:                                                                                                             iv

Certification:                                                                                                           v

Dedication:                                                                                                               vi

Acknowledgment:                                                                                                    vii

Table of Contents:                                                                                                   viii

Abstract:                                                                                                                  x


CHAPTER ONE                                                                                                     1

1.1       Background of the Study                                                                             1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                            2

1.3       Research Question                                                                                       4

1.4       Purpose of the Study                                                                                    4

1.5       Hypothesis (optional)                                                                                  5

1.6       Significance of the study                                                                             5

1.7       Scope of the study                                                                                        6

1.8       Limitation of the Study                                                                               6

1.9       Definition of Terms                                                                                      7

1.10    Organization of the Study                                                                           7




CHAPTER TWO                                                                                                   

Literature Review and Theoretical Framework

2.1       Literature Review                                                                                         9

2.2       Theoretical Framework                                                                               22





Research Methodology                                                                            

3.1       Research Design                                                                                           24

3.2       Ares of the study                                                                                          24

3.3       Population of the study                                                                               25

3.4       Sample and Sample technique                                                                   25

3.5       Method of Data collection                                                                          25

3.6       Instrument of Data Collection                                                                    26

3.7       Reliability of the Instrument                                                                       26

2.8       Validity of the Instrument                                                                           27

3.9       Distribution and Retrieval of Instrument                                                  27

3.10    Method of Data Analysis                                                                            28



Data Presentation and Analyses                                                                        

4.1       Data Presentation                                                                                         29

4.2       Analysis of Research Question                                                                  29

4.3       Testing of Hypothesis                                                                                 38

4.4       Interpretation of Result                                                                               38


CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                       

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1       Summary                                                                                                       42

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                    44

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                         46

References                                                                                                    47

            Appendix                                                                                                       48

            Questionnaire                                                                                              49







1.1 Background to the Study

            Modern  automation in every organization has always been net with awe, fear, uncertainty and  in some extreme cases, rejection or sabotage. Modern  automation in this study refers to new technologies such as computers, and so on etc. the introduction of sophisticated office technology equipment like computers, word processors and other information technology resources coupled with new management techniques have completely changed old work habits in the office and triggered off a new business orientation thus making moribund the older method of business transaction.

According to Okute (1972) cited in Okoli (2010:1). Information communication Technology is concerned with the aspect of managing and processing information through the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information. It is the handling and processing of information for use by means of  electronic and communication gadgets such as  computers, cameras, telephones etc.

According to Atakpa (2000) cited in Nwaizu (2012:9) stated that public service functions everywhere in the world, it  has undergone a lot of technical changes. As a result, modern office equipment which gives the public servants the opportunity to increase her efficiency abound. Many office functions and secretarial duties which were previously done manually have been mechanized. Thus, the diversities  of those office technologies requires the secretary to possess new skills  and sub skills to enable him/her to be relevant in the modern office.

ICT has changed the equipment and work groups, of course; nobody today would like to work in an office where information processing and other secretarial activities are done manually or mechanically. So the mechanized office is gradually given way to the automated office. Investment in networks of computer-based workstations and other automated equipment is transferring traditional manual office methods and  paper communications media. This transformation has resulted in the development of automated systems that rely on electronic collaboration  and communication networks, text processing, image processing and other information and communication technologies.

According to Okwuanaso (2009) cited in Obayi (2004:9), information communication technology has posed challenges to public servants as they communicate in the present day office. In the past, secretaries functions were performed manually such as that documents and records were maintained on papers stored in files and drawers. The consequences of  global development in the modern information and communication technology area calls for corresponding development of new- skills in office managers. Information is a basic resource in today’s society. We are living in a global information society, with a global economy that is increasingly dependant on the creation, management and distribution of  information resources. People in many nations no longer live in agricultural societies, composed primarily of farmers, or even  industrial societies, where a  majority of the workforce consists of factory workers. Instead, the workforce in many nations consists primarily of workers  in service occupation or knowledge workers, that is, people who spend most of their workday creating, using and distributing information. Today, the information and communication technology revolution has dramatically changed all these and is moving quickly towards changing the work itself. The following are the modern ICT devices found in most offices  for secretarial functions. They are electronic computers with modern office accessories or packages and internet facilities for on-line communication and collaboration, computer printers, plotters, digit-memo, fax  machine, photo-copier, Digital video camera, close circuit television, large screen video projector, etc. similarly, the days of relying primarily on ICT professional to meet our information processing needs are over. Today’s public  servants are expected to use networked micro computers as professional institutions to acquire the information they need to accomplish their jobs successfully.


1.2       Statement of the Problem

Communication technologies are new innovations in offices that enable the discharge of office functions more rapidly and efficiently. The emergence of office  technologies in modern day organizations has challenged the occupational skills of the employees including the public servants. Hence these communication technologies have recently revolutionized office skills and rendered some skills such as transcription skills, typing on the manual typewriter obsolete and has also given rise to  previously unknown skills such as webpage design, desktop publishing, networking, internet skills etc; in modern organizations. This development has obviously challenged the skills and functions of public servants. Again these advancements in communication technologies has led to the need for civil servants to reposition themselves in other to continue to be relevant in their performance of office functions as well as cope with the trend of technologies changes in today’s  modern offices.

The modern world of high technology could not have come about except for the development of computer information technology has opened up a new era in managing information and communication through the techniques of automation and this has enhanced communication systems. Information technology has made public servant’s job more competitive. One of the main causes of poor performance among public servants in most organizations is their abject  lack of communication technology skills as high lightened above. Many  of them do not posses communication technology skills required in the various offices and have continued to negatively affect their general performances. Lack of skills in the area of webpage design, desktop publishing office application, networking, proficiency in accessing the internet, etc, among public servants in government offices, this have often been a source of worry to the management of such organizations. Eze (2011:14) maintains that any office worker of today that is lacking inn information communication technology would be  boring, repetitive and would produce very little. Public servants have to get themselves acquainted on how to operate new office automation such as information storage systems, the internet and other new software packages. In view of the aforementioned  problems the researcher tends to study those communication technology skills required by public servants in their various offices and the influence they have on their job performances.


1.3 Research Questions

  1. Are there ICT resources available for workers in Federal Polytechnic Oko?
  2. To what extent are ICT skills acquired by workers in Federal Polytechnic Oko?
  3. What are the challenges of modern automation in Federal Polytechnic, Oko?


1.4 Purpose of the Study

            The main purpose of this study is to investigate into the challenges of modern automation on the job performance of public servants. Specifically the study sought to:

  1. Determine ICT resources available for workers in Federal Polytechnic, Oko
  2. Ascertain ICT skills acquired by workers in Federal Polytechnic, Oko
  3. Identify the challenges of modern automation in Federal Polytechnic, Oko.


1.5       Significance of the Study

            At the successful completion of this work, it will be at of the following benefits to the following parties:

Management of organization: This  study will help them realize the effects of organizational re-engineering and performance on  public servants and how best to carry out  their change process so it will not affect the job performance of public servant negatively.

This study will reveal the importance of automation to public servants duties and how automation will help them achieve superior job performance, thereby helping the embrace the automated system.

This study will also serve as a ready reference material and guide in studying related topics.




1.6       Scope of the Study

            The scope of ICT is a very wide one that covers office automation, transaction processing, management reporting, decision support system, ICT for strategic  competitive advantage, etc. this study however,  restricts itself to office technology skills required by today’s public servant in carrying out his/her duties in a modern office environment. The scope will focus on investigating the challenges of modern automation on the job performance of public servants, focusing mainly on Federal Polytechnic, Oko because the researcher lacks adequate time and finance to  carry out a wider study.


1.7       Limitation of the Study

            The researcher was faced with a number of constraints during the course of the work. Time constraints are also a limiting factor in undertaking this study. The limiting factors  are that of availability of data which might be difficult to obtain following the trend of the attitude of Nigerians with regards to giving out information.



1.8       Operationalization/Definition of Terms

INVESTIGATION: An official investigation of the facts about a situation or something.

CHALLENGES: Now or difficult tasks that is hard to overcome.

MODERN AUTOMATION: The introduction of new age technologies in an organization, such as computers and other electronic and digital equipment.

JOB PERFORMMANCE: How well or badly an employee does his work.

PUBLIC SERVANT: Persons employed in organization to play supporting roles like managing, records keeping, organizing and correspondence.

WORKERS: Workers employed in organization who work towards achieving the organizational set objective.


1.9       Organization of the Study

            This contains how the study was organized and conducted, the chapters in this research study will be sequenced and organized to achieve the research objectives, in this project “An investigation into the challenges of modern automation on job performance of public servants (A study of Federal Polytechnic, Oko)”.

Chapter one is all about the background of the automation on job performance of public servants, the  statement of the problem, the research questions that was  gathered, the purpose, the significance, the scope and limitations of the study, defining the terms used in this project.

Chapter two, the literature review is a text of a scholarly paper which includes the current knowledge, substantive findings on this project topic. It establishes as a link between the theoretical framework provides the background that supports the investigation and offers the reader a  justification for the study of this research problem.

Chapter three, this involves the research methodology, research design, area and population of the  study, sampling techniques, method of data collection, instruments  for data collection, reliability and validity of the instruments distribution and retrieval of instruments and finally method of data analysis.

Chapter four, this contains the discussions (analysis) supported with data gathered from both primary and secondary sources.

Chapter five, this contains the summary., the conclusion and the recommendations.


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