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Title page                                                                         i

Approval                                                                  ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgements                                                  iv

Table of contents                                                     vi

Abstract                                                                   ix



  • Introduction                 1
    • Background of the study         1
    • Statement of the problem         7
    • Purpose of the study         10
    • Significance of the study         11
    • Research question         12
    • Scope of the study         13
    • Limitation of the study         14
    • Definition of terms         15



  • Literature Review 17
    • Background information in the study area 17
    • Leadership Definition                18
    • Leadership problems 19
    • Problem characteristics 22
    • Leadership, Management and Bureaucracy 24
    • Functions of a leadership and management 25
    • Tertiary institutions and federal polytechnic 28
    • Techniques of leadership 31
    • Theories and approaches to leadership problems 32



  • Research Methodology                        38
    • Design of the study 38
    • Area of the study 39
    • Population of the study 40
    • Sample size/sampling techniques 40
    • Instrument for data collection 41
    • Validity and Reliability of the instrument 41
    • Distribution and Retrieval of the instrument 42
    • Method of data analysis 44



  • Data Presentation and Analysis 45
    • Presentation of Findings 45
    • Discussion/Analysis of findings 53



5.0    Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations        58

5.1   Summary                                                         58

5.2   Conclusion                                                      59

5.3   Recommendations                                           60

References                                                       62

Appendix                                                        64

Questionnaire                                                  65





This research work “AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PROBLEMS OF LEADERSHIP IN TERTIARY INSTITUTON” looking at the ineffective and techniques which our leaders used so as to inaccomplish the leadership objectives. Specifically, the work answers questions which bordered on the problems of leadership which the institution is going ontos. The five chaptered research works limit its scope of study in Federal Polytechnic, Oko using proper information gathering method to obtain data whereas twelve principle officers of the administration and academic sector are used as the sample size. Also, the interview used for data collection included students. The chapter four led to the chapter summary, recommendation and conclusion. The research work actually show the most leader ship problems which pull down the bad rapport between the management and the subordinates so as to inaccomplish the set goals.





       The work “An investigation into the problems of leadership in Nigerian tertiary institutions has a critical look at the leadership problems at which the Nigerian tertiary institutions are led using Federal Polytechnic, Oko as a case study.

Leadership as known is the act of directing people/group of persons so as to accomplish as stated objectives, determines the success and failure of an organization based on the style adopted. Also leadership can be seen as the ability to influence people to strive willingly towards accomplishing groups objectives.

Konnitze and Dr. Donnell (1972) in Umeh (2005:145) define leadership as “interpersonal influence, exercise in situation and directed through the communication process towards the attainment of a specific goal or goals”.

He further describes leadership as directing, coordinating a group people in a specific situation, with the view to attaining the objectives of the group. It also involves wielding authority over the subordinates giving direction and ensuring that the objectives of an organization are met.

Moreso, leadership is in essence concerned with human energy in organization group. It is a people orientated phenomenon. It is also a force that can initiate action among people, guide activities in a given direction, maintain such activities and unify effort towards common goals.

In this research work, leadership problems autocratic behaviour, lack of planning etc.

Leadership problems are explained merits and demerits marshaled out, at the same time, the areas which require particular problems of leadership pin-pointed for ineffectiveness.

Comparisons of problems of leadership were projected lifting know the problem(s) which should not be a approached properly. Bureaucratic, management as concerned leadership are not left out. Consequently, techniques, theories and approaches to leadership are made comprehensive in the work through the aid of the intellects in leadership and management.

Finally, the research work made an open revelation of the concept “leadership”.

The application of the problems of leadership in any organization, be it service or production should not through some numerous drives such as being wicked, arrogant, rude, power fact of the force and not appeal to legitimate right. A bad leader can not transmit feeling and execution to the followers by the process that known as communication.

Federal Polytechnic, Oko was established (1981) through collective effort of the community. It is located in Orumba North Local Government Area of Anambra State.

The planning and establishment of the institution was executed by the Oko progressive union, supported by their result oriented leadership of its first chairman of the second civilian regime of Federal republic of Nigeria Dr. Alex Ekwueme.

Initially, the institution was approved by the Anambra State government as a college of arts and science in 1979. And was upgraded to Anambra State Polytechnic, in 1985 when there was a leadership problem.

The quality of its education programmes necessitated its take over by the Federal Government in 1993, it is today known and called Federal Polytechnic Oko.

This institution is located on a land mass covering 35.03 hectares. Because of the founder of the institution, the land where the school is erected is dominated by various individuals and organization as their contributions to the under development of the institution.

Then in 2002, after administration of Prof. Uba Nwuba, a serious crisis broke out in the institution which led to a panel set up by the Federal Government to investigate the matter. The exercise was messed up and disorganized, worsening the crisis.

In this institution, the staff instead of facing academics and problems of students they started mortgaging their jobs with acquiring wealth. There was no serious academic planning and execution, there was no coordination, supervision of staff and students was very poor and indiscipline become order of the day. Also this institution is facing the appointment of a rector.

The major problem of leadership is not well addressed students and recognize their problems. Various leadership problems of the institution have kept the status of the content of the institution in many shapes.

This is because every leadership has its own made of operation that brings in good or bad to the people.



Most of Nigerian tertiary institutions are faced with some financial problems which impinge on administrative efficiency. Federal Polytechnic, Oko is never an exception. Federal Polytechnic, Oko has been hindered in the performance of its administrative functions as a result of many problems including the inadequacy of human and materials resources. Many of these problems includes;

  1. Unrealistic Federal Government promises; the Polytechnic management has made it clear that most of the Federal Government budget allocation made to the school have not been fully released and this has been a serious sources of problem that impinged most of the administrative function. Since, 1993 the school was taken over by the Federal Government as its name changed to Federal Polytechnic.
  2. Inadequate handling of the institution fund: there has been widespread misappropriation of fund. This is witnessed in the series of administration which have come and gone internally and externally generated revenue of the school were most time squandered by the leader abandoned.

This impinged institution activities thereby setting the hand of the clock back.

  • Students refused to pay their levies to the union; students union government of the institution at various time initiated the idea of students of the school to paying students union fees levy to enhance efficient in the side of the affairs of the students.

As the government do not want to look into the affairs of student by upgrading their condition. At the department levels, association in the department, such as PASAN impose levy on the students till dulge these payment thereby bringing failure to the activities of the institution.



The general purpose of this research is to bring to limelight the problem of leadership in tertiary institution with Federal Polytechnic, Oko as a case study. In this work, the research therefore intends to;

  1. To know the type of leadership problems which is prevalent in the management level of Federal Polytechnic, Oko.
  2. To show the strategies and motivational steps leaders take to lead ineffectively. This research is going to mention some approaches a leader used so as to make the followers unaccomplished the goals of leadership.
  • To correct the mistake that his impinged the succeed of an organization. Most of our leaders have run to failure in carrying out the responsibilities.



The findings of this study will help a lot to address the improper attitude of the leader in the managerial cadre who has never had any opportunity of studying administration in the Tertiary Institution. This study is meant to give wrong correction to the low knowledge and porous problems that make them not to inaccomplish the objectives.

This study finding will also make the leader to know the type of leadership which should be good for their people as the responses of various groups concerning various leadership problem explained.

The leaders will understand from this finding as it will make them take note on their problems which the subordinates could not positively responded to.

While it improves the leadership inequalities inculcated by the leaders and makes the organization concerned a failure one.

Significantly, the finding go further to tell the leaders the problems that facing many institutions. Such as Federal Polytechnic, Oko.


  1. Is the transmission of information within the management by memo or oral information?
  2. What are the kinds of leadership problems which is prevalent in the management level of this institution Federal Polytechnic, Oko.
  • To what extent has leadership roles contributed to the institutions?
  1. What are the functions to do in any organization, office or in the schools?



This study touches almost main parts of the leadership problems found in institutions of higher learning especially in Federal Polytechnic, Oko.

The research places much emphasis on administration in tertiary institutions with emphasis in this institution.

All aimed at the ways in which our leaders of this institution accomplished organizational objectives.

It analyzes the merits and demerits of these problems so as to make proper decisions on which to be choose in relation to the situation.

He also continued with the techniques, problems characteristics and understanding of tertiary institution and leadership in relationship with the other management concepts for the people.



This study could have been extended to other areas but due to financial constraints and time factor couple with the attitude of some of the people expected to give useful information necessary for the completion of this work.

The researcher compelled to limit the study to Awka North and Anambra East Local Government.



Leadership problem: is those things that hinders the work of a leader in the organization especially in tertiary institution.

AUTOCRATIC PROBLEM: It relies on authority to force work to be done.


DIRECTIVE PROBLEM: This is leadership problem where a leader makes most decision for the people.


PLANNING: This is the continuous activity that can reduce the advice effects of random behaviour and goals directed.


LEADERSHIP: It is the ability to influence people to strive towards accomplishing group objectives.


ARBITER: Someone who is tasked to judge some matter.


BOURGEOISIES: Those who are in the class of social status and material prosperity.



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