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The topic of this research is Analysis of the Impact of Effective Communication
in Increasing Organizational Productivity. A case study of the Nigerian
Breweries Plc, Amaeke, Ngwo, Enugu, Enugu State. The researcher used survey
design for the study. The population of the study was eight hundred and ninetynine (899) employee of the company, with sample size of one hundred and
thirty-three (133). The researcher used both the primary and secondary sources
of data in the course of the study. The primary data were collected through the
instrument of questionnaire and observation. The secondary data were collected
from text books, journals, magazine, newspapers, and libraries. The research
finding revealed that communication breakdown has effect in the management
of an organization which results in low productivity. The researcher
recommended among other management should continue to keep in touch with
the workers on new development in the organization.
Title page i
Dedication ii
Abstract iii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of contents v
Lists of Tables
Lists of Figures
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Objectives/purposes of the study 5
1.4 Research questions/hypothesis 6
1.5 Significance of the study 6
1.6 Limitation of the study 6
1.7 Scope of the study 7
Chapter References 8
2.1 Theoretical framework for the study 9
2.2 Historical background 19
2.3 Current literature on theories postulated above 21
Chapter References 45
3.1 Research Design 46
3.2 Sources of Data 46
3.2.1 Primary Sources of Data 46
3.2.2 Secondary Sources of Data 47
3.3 The population of study 47
3.4 Sample Design and Determination of Sample Size 48
3.5 Methods of Data Collection 50
3.5.1 Questionnaire Design, Distribution and Collection of Responses 50
3.5.2 Secondary methods of Data Collection 50
3.6 Methods of Data Presentation and Analysis 51
Chapter References 52
4.1 Data Presentation 53
4.1.1 Demographic characteristics 53
4.1.2 Presentation According to Key Research Questions 55
4.2 Analysis Based on Research Hypothesis 55
5.1 Summary of findings 62
5.2 Conclusion 64
5.3 Recommendations 63
Bibliography 65
Appendix 67
Questionnaire 68
Table 4:1.1 Age Distribution of Respondents 53
Table 4:1.2 Gender Distribution 54
Table 4.1.3 Distribution of respondents of Marital Status 54
Table 4.2.1 Do you know, the objectives of your organization, if yes,
where were they made known to you? 55
Table 4.2.2 Does knowledge of objective affect your attitude at work? 56
Table 4.2.3 Who communicates managerial decisions in your
organization? 56
Table 4.2.4 Which medium of communication do you prefer? 57
Table 4.2.5 To what extent do cordial relationships affect the
effective communication? 58
Table 4.2.6 In your opinion do you think that interpersonal relationship
with colleagues affect effectiveness of communication
in your organization? 58
Table 4.2.7 How long have you spent in this organization? 59
Table 4.2.8 Do you think that communication in your organization
is effective? 60
Table 4.2.9 If yes, do you think it improves managerial performance? 60
Table 4.2.10 Does knowledge of company’s objective affect your
attitude to work? 61
Figure 1.1 Element of an organization 10
Figure 1.2 A communication process model 25
Communication is very important to the existence of human organization.
The environment in which organization operate today is complex and comprises
physical, cultural psychosocial, economics, legal, political, technical and other
It is in this environment that all organization must operate their business.
They must among other analysis the character of economics and social problem
and acknowledge that their policies are adopted and administered in a political
system where concentration of power and self-interest has to be tacked.
In addition, good communication network in the form of postal and
telecommunication has been interpreted by various meaning. Some regard it as
message itself. Some feel it is the channel along which the message is passed
while other term it as the cut off message, passing communication can therefore
be rightly defined as the process by which information is passed between
individual or organization by means of a previously agreed method (either
verbal or written). In everyday life one seeks information from or passes
information to them. This communication can be verbal (face to face or
telephone). Written (letter, memos, reports etc) or mechanical (seconding
original documents instead of transmitting the message in them). The most vital
means of receiving or sending information is oral communication.
Osiegbu (1983:40) said that the factors that contribute to failure in
implementation of organizational objectives include lack of clarity of purpose
and failure in understanding of objective policies and tasks at any level by any
group or individual. Failure in communication or perception clashes of interest
of value, gap between anticipated and actual event, degree of flexibility and
capacity of organization to respond to the unexpected all those by no means are
possible constraints to organizational intention but the major concern here is the
breakdown in management function due to no communication. In other word
how “effective communication improves managerial performance”.
Communication function is the means by which organized activity is
unified. The means by which social input are fed into the social systems or
organization, the means by which behaviour is modified, change is effected,
information is made productive and goals are achieved, be it business, the
military, the government and so on.
In a similar form, communication relates to exchange of facts, opinion or
emotions by two or more persons in an organization. It could be word, letters,
symbols or messages in a way that one-organization member shares meaning
and understanding with another. On the other hand management is the
managing of a complex system of men, machine, money and the physical
structure whose effective coordination is necessary in the production of a
product or service that have economic value to the society. The practice of
management also rest to a large extent on the role or part which individuals and
groups in the organization play and of course the way their activities are
Human beings are essentially crucial for the development growth and
success of any organization for it is the human beings that get things done. The
practice of management involve taking charge and streamlining the activities of
organization member to ensure that as far as possible desired objective are
The activities are carried out by human being (personnel) and physical
factors involve the equipment, tools and other material factors used to aid the
achievement of the desired objective.
Effective organization performance is realized when all persons and
resources are synchronized, balanced and given direction whether managerial
job is accounting, selling, designing, engineering, the managers effectiveness
depends on his ability to listen and to read, or his ability to speak or write. He
needs skill in his thinking across to other people as well as skill on finding and
what other people are after.
This implies that communication is needed to convey information
necessary for the ongoing operation, and that it can have effect on the attitudes
of people on the organization. Therefore communication is essential for both
internal and external functioning of the enterprises because it integrates the
managerial function. It needs internally, include to develop plans for their
achievement, to organize resource in the most effective and efficient way to
select develop and appraise members of the organization to lead, direct,
motivate and create climate in which people want to contribute and to control
performance. It needs externally include, on the other hand the following first
and foremost. It is through information exchange that the managers become
aware of the needs of customer, aware of the availability of supplies, the claims
of stockholder, the regulation of government and the concerns of the
In this way, the manager is aware of his opportunities and threats on his
surrounding environment and therefore knows his does and don’t e.g he then
knows whether to recruit staff or not, other managerial decision.
The importance of communication cannot be over-emphasized. It can be
compared to the blood that runs through the veins and arteries of human body
because the function of integration, maintained, orientation, decision making
and the growth of organization member are performed through it.
The environmental of managing may differ between large and small
business, between business and other kinds of organized enterprises and
between differing cultures in areas of economic and social development.
The researcher therefore believes that managerial functions are basically
the same but at various degree of performance. The researcher wants to examine
how effective communication holds the key to improved managerial
performance. Individuals with little or no qualifications find themselves holding
managerial positions in a company. This lack of a competence leads to wrong
decision making especially when subordinates are not consulted.
Organizations also have some complicated chain of command, difficult
and most times the chain of command is not strictly adhered to, the company as
such have overlapping authorities and responsibilities as subordinates become
accountable to more than one superior.
Also most companies lack intra-communication facilities like intercoms
and memos. This leads to ignorance on the part of the subordinate, about the
aim and the objective of the company as well as the standard expected of them.
This could lead to liaises-faire attitude to work, which is harmful to the
growth and progress of the company. As a result of all the above problems
discussed, the researcher intends to help such companies by elaborating on how
effective communication can improve their performance.
(1) To describe the communication system in an organization.
(2) To develop a model of the communication process.
(3) To explain how communication improves managerial performance.
(4) To identify barriers and breakdowns in the communication system.
(5) To suggest approaches and techniques to improve the communication
1. To what extent do communication increase the quality of
employee’s performance?
2. What degree do communication increase productivity?
3. How can an organization get the best of managerial performance?
4. How can communication increase the rate of turnover?
From the study of this research, it is understood that management
performance, by executing the four managerial function can be improved
through effective communications thereby aiding the organization achieve its
This study would aid students, managers in the making and managing of
organization. It would aid students studying management to understand the
theoretical background on how information is very vital to efficiency.
The study would enable them to start off well when establishing or when
heading an enterprise and its organization structure. As regards those who are
already managers, the study would help them to achieve their goal if they have
not or to improve on their performance or they are just on the average.
It is a known fact that researchers encounter a lot of problem, which are
inherent in our society and this research is no exception.
This problem will range from personal constraints to environment
Time for instance will be a constraints. A lot of time will be consumed
before this research could be carried out. The researcher has to forfeit a lot of
appointment, assignments, and other commitments especially during the
collection of information that will be used for the literature review.
Lack of statistic will be another major set back to this research. It will be
due to the impossibility of obtaining some accurate information required. It
should be noted that lack of accurate statistic limits accuracy of any research
work. They seriously guided most information considered confidential to the
The researcher has a wide coverage in mind, which include organization
of all sort such as academic institution as well as profitable organization. For
this research, the researcher would limit the scope to one of the leading brewing
industry in this country, Nigerian Brewery Plc, Amaeke, Ngwo, Enugu, Enugu
Alonge P.A. (1992) Promoting Managerial Performance Through Effective
Communication NIGERIAN BUSINESS TIME October 26.
BATMAN D.N. & SIGNBOARD N.B. (1981) Communicating in Business
CHIZEA B.I. (1984) Managerial Effectiveness NIGERIAN BUSINESS TIME,
July 25.
OSIEGBU P. (1983) Effective Communication as a Tool in Supervision
Management in Nigeria 19(2) Feb.


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