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Title page             —————————————————————————-iDedication                    —————————————————————————ii

Approval page       ————————————————————————–iii

Certification         ————————————————————————–iv

Acknowledgement ——————————————————— —————–v

Table of Contents —————————————————————————vi

Abstract               ————————————————————————–vii

List of Tables       ————————————————————————-viii

List of figures        —————————————————————————ix




  • Background of Study —————————————————————–1
  • Statement of Problem —————————————————————–5
  • Purpose of the Study  —————————————————————–6
  • Significance of the Study————————————————————-7
  • Scope of the study  ——————————————————————–7



2.1 Review of related literature ————————————————————8

2.2 Theoretical background     ————————————————————18

2.2.1 Forms of communication         —————————————————19

2.2.2Communication skills                                             —————————20

2.2.3 Necessities for  effective communication————————————–23

2.2.4 barriers to effective communication             ———————————-28




3.1 Research design ————————————————————————35

3.2 Population of study ——————————————————————–35

3.3 Source of data ————————————————————————–36

3.4 Method of data collection————————————————————-36

3.5 Sample size                   —————————————————————-37







5.1 Discussion of findings —————————————————————–51

5.2 Summary of findings ——————————————————————54

5.3 Conclusion ——————————————————————————55

5.4 Limitations of study ——————————————————————-47

5.5 Recommendations ———————————————————————56





Communication is essential for everyday life and is at the core of every professional practice.

Due to essential role of communication in patients care there is need to study the nature of communication between the patients and the Radiographers in the radiology department.

A total of 169 patients and the radiographers were assessed using a semi-structured questionnaires for both patients and the radiographers. The questionnaires were distributed to patients who had had their examination and are waiting for their result.

The findings of the study revealed various communication methods used by the radiographers while carrying out their radiological investigation 53% of them used body language to demonstrate and communicate to patients when they seem not to understand the verbal instructions.

The study shows that severity of patient condition is responsible for 53.8%  communication barrier while use of medical term accounts for 50% from patients perspective.

Out of a total of 169 patients assessed 76.9%said they were pre-informed about the examination.

The findings also showed that 53.8% and 38.5% of patient studied were satisfied and very satisfied respectively with communication during their examination; however 7.7%were unsatisfied. This is relatively very small, thus one can say that there is effective communication in radiology department studied.

The study showed that a good number of radiographers observed the principles of good radiographer-patient communication like greeting the patient, introducing himself or herself etc; but there is still need to improve in area of empathy, and making the patient comfortable because their importance in satisfactory health care delivery cannot be overemphasized.



  1.1Background of study

The quality and success of health care is largely affected by the level of communication and good rapport between the radiographer and the patient1. communication in medical imaging is a neglected area of research, despite the necessity of good communication  if optimum diagnostic images are to be achieved. Medical radiographers are too busy and focused to produce radiographs  and thus may think that explaining radiological procedure to patient and establishing good rapport via communication  is wasting of their  precious time1 forgetting that the patient  perception of general care, rating of profession and overall satisfaction all lie on effective interaction and communication. This is because most of them will not see the radiographs you are eager to produce, they will only rate you  as a good or bad radiographer based on the way you handle and communicate with them2. The Radiographer-patient communication is essential for the delivery of high quality health care in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. It forms one of the foundation of contemporary medical ethics. Radiographer-patient relationships can be strengthened and patient outcomes improved through effective communication.2

without face-to- face patient communication a critical components is missing in the healing/diagnostic process.1,2

Also, it is important to realize that in our current health care system, patient sensitization is a patients’ right and care providers are  responsible for providing this  enlightment.3 evidence also suggests that patient- radiographer communication or care is associated with a higher rate of patient satisfaction and improved safety, efficiency and prescribed treatment leading to better patient outcomes.

It is necessary to state here the importance of confidence in the radiographer-patient communication. This issue bothers on the fact that a patient must have confidence in the competency of the radiographer and the patient must feel that they can confide in him /her.3

It should however be noted that the quality of radiographer patient communication is important to both parties. The better the communication in terms of mutual respect, knowledge, trust, shared values and perspective about disease and life and time available , the better will be the amount and quality of information about the patient condition thereby, enhancing  accuracy of diagnosis, but where such a relationship is poor, the radiographers ability to make a full assessment is compromised and the patient is more likely to distrust the diagnosis and purpose treatment causing decreased compliance in following the instruction4,5.

The American registry of radiological technologists and the American society of radiological technologists code of ethics outlines expectations for good communication practices in medical imaging 5,6 it is the duty of radiographers to adhere to  these ethical standards in order to provide quality patient care and maintain the integrity of the profession. Proper patient communication provides the means to achieve those standards and includes displaying professional conduct toward patient; having an attitude of respect toward other professionals and the patient; and the responsibility to act as a patient advocate through all aspect of the patients’ care.5

As it is commonly said “if your are not informed, you are deformed”. Radiographers need to explain the procedure and provide the patient with instructions about what will be required  of him or her to complete the examination successfully; this is important because radiographers need to  ensure the patient understands the  explanation and instructions7.  Communication is a 2 way process, so radiographers must welcome patient participation and encourage patients to ask question about any concerns they may have5. Radiographers sometimes fail to remember that although performing the same type of procedures day in and day out is common to them, patients are often experiencing the particular examination for the first time. They are novice, scared and unsure, and require excellent communication and instruction from the radiographer to guide them through the process and thereby complying with the instructions given to them to achieve a better diagnostic image.


1.2      Statement of problem

  1. Due to the integral role of communication in medical diagnosis, there is need to know how this might be enhanced and improved to achieve optimum outcome.
  2. Effective Radiographer-patient communication especially in teaching hospitals have not been ascertain to the best knowledge of the researcher.
  3. There seem to be barriers to effective communication  which can cause misunderstanding of instructions provided to patient during radiological examinations.


1.3      Objectives

  1. To determine the communication  skills employed by radiographers whilst caring out their day –to –day responsibilities.
  2. To randomly asses patient-radiographers’ interaction in order to evaluate the effectiveness and barriers to effective communication.
  3. To determine patient –radiographer rapport and evaluate patient perception of satisfaction as regards to communication.





1.4      Significance of study

This work will serve as an educative material on the effective patient radiographer communication.

It will serve to sensitize both scholars and practicing radiographers on the need to establish good patient rapport

The work will help to evaluate patient perception of communication.


1.5      Scope of study

The study will include patients that are waiting for their result after x- ray examination and radiographers present at the time of the study within the two three tertiary health institutions  in Enugu Metropolis.

Very sick and unconscious patients pediatrics were not involved in this study. This study lasted for three months



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