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Title Page                                                                                                                               i

Declaration                                                                                                                            ii

Certification                                                                                                                          iii

Dedication                                                                                                                             iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                               v

Table of Contents                                                                                                                 vi

Abstract                                                                                                                                 x


1.1       Background of the Study                                                                                         1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                        4

1.3       Purpose of the Study                                                                                                5

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                                  5

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                                                               6

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                                         6

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                                                   7

1.8       Definition of Key Terms                                                                                         7



2.1       Conceptual Framework                                                                                           8

2.2.1   Concept of Learning                                                                                                9 Learning Models                                                                                                      9

2.2.2   Concept of Teaching                                                                                                10 Basic Teaching Model                                                                                             10

2.3       Approaches to Teaching and Learning Process                                                   12

2.3.1   Teacher-Centered Methods                                                                                    12

2.3.2   Student-Centered Methods                                                                                     13

2.3.3   Teacher-Student Interactive Method                                                                     13

2.4       Academic Performance of Students                                                                      13

2.5       Method of Teaching and Academic Performance of Students                           16

2.5.1   Lecture Method                                                                                                        16

2.5.2   Demonstrating Method                                                                                            18

2.5.3   Discussion Method                                                                                                  19

2.5.4   Inquiry Method                                                                                                         20

2.5.5   Enquiry Method                                                                                                       22

2.5.6   Questioning /Socratic Method                                                                                23

2.5.7   Assignment/Project Method                                                                                   23

2.5.8   Group Method                                                                                                          24

2.5.9   Field Trip Method (Excursion)                                                                              24

2.5.10 Dramatization and Role Playing as a teaching Methods                                    24

2.5.11 Cooperative Learning as a Teaching Method                                                       25

2.5.12 Micro Teaching/Minicourse                                                                                   25

2.5.13 Team Teaching                                                                                                         26

2.5.14 Multigrade Teaching                                                                                                27

2.5.15 Idealist Method of Teaching                                                                                   27

2.5.16 Criteria for Selecting Teaching Method                                                                28

2.5.17 Factors Determining Teaching Methods                                                               29

2.6       Appraisal of Literature Reviewed                                                                          30


  • Research Design 32

3.2.      Population of the Study                                                                                           32

3.3.      Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                          32

3.4       Instrumentation                                                                                                        33

3.5       Validation of the Research Instrument                                                                  33

3.6       Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                   33

3.7       Administration of the Instrument                                                                           34

3.8       Method of Data Analysis                                                                                        35



4.1       Presentation of Demographic Variable of the Respondents                              36

4.1.1   Demographic Data of the Students                                                                        36

4.2       Testing of Hypotheses                                                                                             37


5.1       Discussion of Findings                                                                                            42

5.2       Summary of the Study                                                                                             44

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                                44

5.4       Recommendations                                                                                                   45

5.5       Suggestions for Further Research                                                                          45


References                                                                                                                             47-












This study investigated the relationship between “teachers’ methods of teaching and students’ academic performance in senior secondary schools in Alimosho area of Lagos state. The population of this study consisted of all students in Senior Secondary schools in Alimosho local Government area of Lagos state. Simple random sampling technique was used to select five public senior secondary schools in the local government. In each of the selected school, One hundred students were randomly selected. The instrument used was Students’ Achievement Test (SAT). The instrument consists of multiple choice items constructed by the researcher. A multiple choice format was used because the test could be completed quickly by a large number of students. The instrument made up of two sections A and B. Instruments were given to experts in the field of measurement and evaluation for validation and the reliability was tested with the coefficient of the internal consistency was 0.76. The researchers initially administered test referred to as pre-test to all groups at the same time and kept the records of students’ performances. The result of this findings showed that there was significant relationship between lecture method and students’ academic performance the research then gave instructions to the five groups, using different teaching methods for each group under the same conditions. Based on the findings, it was recommended Teachers should be encouraged to teach the students with various methods of teaching and discourage to be using only conventional method of teaching. Teacher should make sure that he/she uses teaching method that is appropriate for any situation of students and the class in general.















1.1       Background to the Study 

Nigeria’s philosophy of education believes that education is an instrument for national development and as such, there is a need for functional education for the promotion of a progressive and united Nigeria (Adaralegbe, 2019). Ogunsaju (2014) states that the academic standard in all Nigerian educational institutions has fallen considerably below societal expectations.  Blumende (2011) corroborated this view when he reported that the decline in the quality of education cannot be ignored by anyone who is aware of the significant role of education as an instrument of societal transformation and development. There is a need to focus on teachers’ adequacy and competency in respect to their pedagogical practices and strategies and mastery of the curriculum and subject content.

Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in student learning. Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011). It was noted that difference in the performance of students has been attributed to teachers’ methods or techniques of lesson presentation (Udom, 2008). As a result of this, substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching methods indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievements of learners. Supporting this, various studies attempting to address the issues that affect teaching methods and student learning today include educational technology integration (Abbitt, 2011), teachers’ roles (Webb, 2009), the class environment (Doll et al., 2010), understanding the adult learner (Kisamore, Aldridge, Alexander, & White, 2008), length of the class session (Coskun, 2011), increasing class size in schools (Gibbs & Jenkins, 1992), students’ attitudes (Akkuzu & Akcay, 2011), as well as the increased interdependence of society today (Schul, 2011).

The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner. To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research. Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in student learning. Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011). Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching methods indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievements of learners. Teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) maintained that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered. Teachers’ job performance means the role of a teacher in the achievement of educational goals and objectives is very important. This is because they initiate and facilitate learning process. Pan Nilan (2003), stated that one of the most important potential agent of change is in national system of schooling in its teachers.


Job performance has it relates to teachers is defined in international dictionary of education as the action of teachers or group of teachers when given a teaching task. This definition presupposes the effort of teachers geared towards organizational goals attainment in educational outcomes of classroom teaching Mustapha (2012). Abdul (2002) is of the opinion that performance is a result of input and that performance measure ratings used to evaluate employee. She stated that the only true measure of an individual effectiveness on job is his value to the organization and this is through job performance.

Teachers’ job performance implies that there is a maximized qualitative and performance, which fosters and is measured through students’ academic performance. In other words teachers ‘productivity is a desirable maximized performance or output on the part of the teachers using all available resources within his reach and geared towards the attainment of goals and objectives in secondary school system. Ijaya (2003) asserted that teachers job performance is determined by the following: effective teaching measured by student academic performance in examination, Punctuality at school and in the class, giving extra lessons to the students, contribution to the progress of the school through participation in co-curricular activities such as sport, efficiency with regards to the relationship between the characteristic of teaching acts and classroom teaching.

Oluchukwu (2000), expressed that effective job performance is a resultant effort of the inter play of three types of resources and they include physical, financial and human resources, he opined, that in order to enhance job performance improve productivity, human behavior must be well understood and affected positively.

Taiwo (2002), postulated that a teacher is said to be of good performance when he excites students towards growth and development. Teachers’ job performance as demonstrated in classroom is jointly mentioned via the academic performance of the students which is in turn measured through the senior secondary school certificate results.

Studies on teaching methods are not something new in educational research. A large number of studies have been done on this area. Pascarella and Trenzini (2005) have written a compendium of research studies conducted in this area over the past three decades. Even before that, Feldman and Newcomb (1973) mentioned decades of similar research studies in the area of teaching methods. These show both increased interest and knowledge in the area of teaching strategies and learning theories. Svinicki (2000) suggested that these studies on teaching methods conducted in the past decades are so overwhelming that it would be impossible to go over them all in detail. For many decades, the search for better teaching methods to provide the best learning has been the goal of education. However, teaching method is not a one-size-fits-all proposition. Flexibility is crucial in adapting teaching methods in the class. Since all teachers are different, the strategies they use, and the way they use them will depend on the context and situation of their class, as well as their own personality and biases.

The main question that still lingers, even after the large number of studies that have been done is, what are the most suitable teaching methods, and how do they impact students’ learning in today’s setting, especially in large classes? As educational stakeholders, we tend to think that teaching is all about teachers and our role; in fact the most important aspects of the educational process are the students, what they learn and teacher methodology.’ Since good teaching among other factors play significant role in enhancing performance, this study attempted to find out which method of instruction better facilitate learning in secondary schools by beaming light on the different methods of teaching in secondary schools.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

As an educator, the researcher has always been fascinated by the relationship between teaching methods and students’ academic performance; especially when it comes to applications in the context of 21st century education. It seems that there is something in teaching that opens the gate of learning. It is true that successful learning depends on various factors that are not all teacher-related, but the methods that a teacher uses continue to play an important role in student learning and in their academic achievement.

Skills in the selection and utilization of appropriate instructional strategies are required by the teacher for effective teaching. There is no one best approach to instruction. Teaching effectively demands that the teacher must possess some basic ability to organize, co-ordinate and utilize personal qualities, objectives and competency in lesson preparation, presentation and evaluation. Besides, he must be able to motivate the learners, make students active participants in learning, use appropriate strategies and facilities to enhance effectiveness in instructions. Some researchers recommended eclectic method (combination of strategies). Teachers are also expected to implement a variety of instructional strategies in order to meet the objectives of the programme as well as to address individual student interest and needs (Saskatchewan Education, 2009).

Organizing for effective teaching in vocational education is centered on certain factors such as what to teach, when to teach and how to teach. The teacher does not only teach the most relevant, meaningful and useful materials for specific students, he must also recognize and adopt a good and well-researched method of teaching that guarantees better understanding and also stimulates and motivate the students. This necessitated the need for a more effective and result oriented. With this general background, this study focuses on teachers’ methods of teaching and students’ academic performance.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between teachers’ methods of teaching and students’ academic performance. Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. Examine the relationship between the use of lecture method and academic performance of students.
  2. The assess relationship between the use of demonstration method and academic performance of students.
  3. To find the relationship between the use of discussion method and academic performance of students.
  4. To determine the relationship between the use of inquiry method and the academic performance of students.

1.4       Research Questions

            The following research questions were raised to guide the study.

  1. What is the relationship between use of lecture method and academic performance of students?
  2. Are there any relationship between the use of demonstration method and academic performance of students?
  3. What is the relationship between the use of discussion method and academic performance of students?
  4. is there any relationship between the use of inquiry method and the academic performance of students?


1.5       Hypothesis of the study of the following null hypothesis are formulated to be tested at 0.05level of significance.


  1. There is no significant relationship between lecture method and students’ academic performance.
  2. There is no significant relationship between demonstration method and students’ academic performance.
  3. There is no significant relationship between discussion method and students’ academic performance.
  4. There is no significant relationship between inquiry method and students’ academic performance.
    • Significance of the Study

The study will be useful in a number of ways thus: It will help to increase the teachers’ level of awareness and understanding of the use of most of the instructional technique. It will enable a teacher to select and make of a best and relevant method of teaching for teaching a set of students at a point in time. Findings may also provide the teachers with a feedback on the teaching competences in most commonly used teaching methods as a basis for improvement in their instructional practice so that they can enhance performance.

Curriculum planners and educators as well as government and educational administrators need empirical data on the overall teaching method and activity teaching competence of government teachers in Senior Secondary Schools to facilitate proper curricular policies and programmes for effective teaching and learning.




1.7       Scope of the Study

The focus of this research is on the effect of methods of teaching (i.e. lecture, demonstration, discussion and inquiry method) on Senior Secondary School Students performance in Alimosho local government area of Lagos State. The educational level of focus is SS 2 students. It is believed that these groups of students have been exposed to the knowledge, attitude and skills of the subject.

1.8       Definition of Terms

The following are the definition of the terms that appear during the course of this work as they are used within the context of the study for clarification purposes.

Method of Teaching: It is a teaching strategy adopted by a teacher to teach a lesson, this includes the use of lecture, demonstration, inquiry and discussion methods.

Teaching: This is the process of imparting knowledge to the learners.

Academic performance: Learning outcome or output in students taught government which results from teaching techniques/methods the teacher adopts.

Activity: This is student-centered teaching-learning approach, where the student has some control over the process and directs more or less the instructional activities with the teacher providing adequate guidance.

Effect: Outcome of result of using appropriate teaching method on students as measured by government performance test.

Learning: This implies understanding and the ability to relate or integrate new knowledge with our established ways of doing things.



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