The topic “Automated forensic auditing and fraud control in Nigeria” is a critical
concept in modern days accounting, and our country Nigeria is not left out in its
practice. This research aims at pointing out the rationale behind fraudulent
practices as well as examining the role of automated forensic auditing on fraud
control. A survey research design was adopted for this research study and the
sample size was selected using Taro Yamane sampling technique as data used were
obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Four research questions were
formulated out of which three hypotheses were tested using the (ANOVA)
statistical technique. From the analysis, the major findings derived were that;
Automated forensic auditing has significant relationship with fraud control as it
helps in the detection and prevention of fraud; There are measures employed to
solve the problems of insufficient documented materials necessary for
investigating suspects as it helps to foster investigative process; There are
standards set for improving on techniques used for obtaining evidence.
Conclusively, it can be said that fraud control in Nigeria cannot do without
forensic accounting; fraud detection may not be possible in Nigeria if management
of different levels are not committed to do an indebt study of a financial statement
i.e. having a physical check of assets and liabilities. It was recommended that; The
internal control system of every organizations should be strengthened through
regular audit; training of forensic auditors should be done regularly, and also
seminars should be organized to encourage the use of automated tools.
TABLES OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 2
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Statement of the objectives 5
1.4 Research question 5
1.5 Research hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the study 7
1.7 Scope of the study 8
1.8 Limitations of the study 8
1.9 Definitions of terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 Academic review 10
2.2 Fraud deterrence and detection 12
2.3 Elements of fraud 13
2.4 Types of fraud 14
2.5 Fraud theories 15
2.6 Antidotes to fraud 16
2.7 Fraud risk management 19
2.8 The fraud teams 23
2.9 Forensic auditing 25
2.10 Application of forensic audit 26
2.11 Investigative audits 29
2.12 Automated forensic tools 33
2.13 The significant of automated tools 40
2.14 Differences between forensic and financial audit 41
2.15 Advantages of forensic auditing to fraud control 42
2.16 Disadvantages 43
2.17 References 44
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction 47
3.1 Research design 47
3.2 Sources of data collection 48
3.3 Area of the study 48
3.4 population of the study 49
3.5 Determination of sample size 49
3.6 Reliability test 50
3.7 Validity test 51
3.8 Method of data analysis 51
3.9 References 52
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
4.1 Presentation of data 53
4.2 Test of hypotheses 67
4.3 References 81
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Summary of findings 82
5.2 Conclusion 82
5.3 Recommendation 84
5.4 References 85
Appendix 1 86
Appendix 11 87
Mobile wise geek (2011) defined fraud as a deliberate
misrepresentation that causes a form of monetary losses. All of these are usually
required for an act to be considered fraud, if someone lied about his name.
United states legal (2011), defined fraud an international misrepresentation
of material existing facts made by one person to another with the knowledge of its
falsity and for the purpose of inducing the other person to act, and upon which the
other person relies with resulting injuries or damages.
Fraud has been in existence from the beginning of creation, and the
increase of fraud on daily basis brought about forensic auditing.
Forensic auditing is defined as the activity that consist of gathering,
verifying, processing, analyzing of and reporting of data in order to obtain facts
and /or evidence in the area of legal of financial disputes and or irregularities
including fraud and giving preventative advice. IFA (2011).
Fraud is an independent criminal offence, and it is the main phenomenon that
gave birth to forensic auditing, especially those related to economic crime. These
economic crimes are known to be an unpleasant fact and a disheartening issue in
the heart of many organizations, and the control of it, is a concern for any
organization that employs employees, accountants or other hired professional that
have access to the organization’s income, receipts or funds.
Therefore, we are faced with the inescapable conclusion that forensic
auditors are charged with the responsibility of controlling and preventing those
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Brief History of Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC)
The Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) has grown to a
robust and reputable national institution that now commands respect. They have
gained the admiration of Nigerians and tge international community as a whole as
the most vibrant anti-corruption fighting organization that has fought corruption to
a standstill within the short time of its existence.
Over the years, Nigeria suffered tremendously in her economy in the hands of
corrupt leaders who for selfish reasons reduced a country like Nigeria which is rich
in oil to one of the poorest countries in the world. All these brought about the
establishment of EFCC.
i. Formation of the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC)
The Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) was established in
2003 by the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission Act 2002, and reenacted in 2004 by the Act as a body corporate with perpetual succession and
common seal. It has its headquarter at No 5 Fomella Street, Off Crescent, Wuse 11,
Abuja. With Nuhu Ribadu as the first executive chairman until 2008 he was
replaced by Fomida Waziri, and Mr. Ibrahim Lamorde was appointed the chairman
of the commission on 15th February 2012 and he is still the substantive chairman
Its establishment was partially in response to pressure from the financial task
force on money laundering (FATF), which named Nigeria as one of the 23
countries non-corporative in international communities’ effort to fight money
ii. Vision statement: To make Nigeria a safe and corrupt free business
environment for sound health and positive image of the country.
iii. Mission statement: The mission statement of the commission includes;
a. To curb the menace of corruption that constitutes the cog in the wheel of
progress of Nigerians.
b. To protect national and foreign investments in the country.
c. To imbibe the spirit of hard work in the citizenry and discourage ill-gotten
d. To identify illegally acquired wealth and confiscate it.
e. To build an upright workforce in both public and private sector of the economy.
f. To contribute to the global war against financial crimes and terrorism financing
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLE
In this study, there are certain problems that are related to the application of
forensic auditing and the include;
1. Insufficient skilled manpower for the use of automated tools or software.
2. Insufficient documented materials for investigating suspects.
3. Inadequate techniques for obtaining evidence.
4. High cost of analysis.
1.3 STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVES
The general objectives of the study, is to examine the role of automated
forensic auditing on fraud control, while the specific objectives of the study are as
1. To determine why there are insufficient skilled manpower needed for operating
2. To investigate the reasons for insufficient documented materials.
3. To examine the cause of not obtaining enough techniques used as evidence.
4. To evaluate the reasons for high cost of analysis.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
Based on the foregoing, the following research questions were formulated:
i. Is there any significant relationship between automated forensic auditing and
ii. Are there methods adopted to adequately train forensic auditors with
iii. Are these measures employed to solve the problem of insufficient documented
materials necessary for investigating suspects?
iv. Are these standards set for improving on techniques that are meant for
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following are the hypotheses to be tested.
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between automated forensic auditing and
HA1: There is a significant relationship between automated forensic auditing and
Ho2: There are no methods adopted to adequately train forensic auditors with
HA2: There are methods adopted to adequately train forensic auditors with
H03: There are no measures employed to solve the problem of insufficient
documented materials necessary for investigating suspects.
HA3: There are measures employed to solve the problem of insufficient
documented materials necessary for investigating suspects.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study of forensic auditing will be helpful to the following categories of
For Management: It will serve as a reference document for management to use as
a guide for investigating and controlling fraud.
For Auditors: It will serve as a revision kit for practicing auditors in the field.
For the Public: It will add to existing knowledge by exposing the public on the
matter of fraud, making them know that even if fraud cannot be completely
eradicated, it can be controlled.
For Researchers/Analyst: It will serve for future research study.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers the activities of the Economic and Financial Crime
Commission (EFCC), in Nigeria, especially the branch that is situated in PortHarcourt.
1.8. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research work was faced with certain challenges owing to the fact that
the topic in question is not yet widely known. VI2:
i. Inadequate Materials: This was the major constraint of the research work, for it
was limited to few materials and mainly on internet.
ii. Time Factor: This is another factor that limited the flow of this research work.
Time factor is a constraints limitation the study. Inadequate time to work due to
some school activities that restricts student from going out to research.
iii. Distance: The different location of where the materials are to be gathered from
posed a problem to this work, since it requires going from one accounting firm to
another to gather facts relating to the topic.
iv. School Exeat: Here getting permission to sign out of school is a very big
problem to the researcher. School exeat sometimes limits us student from gathering
enough material for our work.
v. Fund: This serves as a major constraint to the research work. Enough funds are
required in getting materials for this work.
1.9. DEFINITION OF TERMS
AUTOMATION: This is the use of control systems and information technology to
reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services.
FORENSIC: Belonging to, used in or suitable to courts of judicature.
FRAUD: Irregularities involving the use of criminal detection to obtain unjust or
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