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This study investigates the causes of examination malpractice in Biology in Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination in Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta State. Ten Secondary Schools in Oshimili north Local Government Area were selected for the study. The population of the study comprises students and teachers. Five research questions were formulated for the study. A sample of two hundred respondents comprising of teachers and students were used using



Background to the Study

Examination in its entirety is no longer regarded as a test for evaluating the performance or judging the scholastic attainment of students. The reason being that there is a complete breakdown of the whole system of examination, almost all over the country, and at all level of education (Ojua, 2011). He further stressed that the breakdown of examination ethics is as a result of the irregularities that is now visible in the educational sector which he termed Examination Malpractice.

According to Ojua (2011), examination malpractice is a deliberate wrong doing contrary to official examination rules designed for the sole aim of placing a candidate at an unfair advantage over others that believe that ethics of examination should be strictly adhered to. He further opined that malpractices commonly committed in examination ranges from leakage of question papers, copying, changing answer booklets, impersonation, misconduct in examination centre, approaching invigilators/examiners, making false entries in award list or examination registers and issuing of fake certificates.

Uya (2012) also defined examination malpractice as any illegal act committed by a student single handedly or in collaboration with others like fellow students, parents, teachers, supervisors, invigilators, printers of questions and anybody or group of people before, during or after examination in order to obtain underserved marks or grades. Uya (2012) further categorized various acts that can be termed examination malpractice as follows: leaking information, Bribery/influencing/terrorizing examination staff, giving/receiving assistance to copy in examination centre, impersonation/miss-representation. Disclosing candidates identity in answer books, smuggling answer books in or outside the examination centres, Manipulating marks through fictitious entries in examination register, any other act considered dishonest, unfair, corrupt etc.

Ovia (2012), Opined that time has come to get-pass identification of examination malpractice acts but rather proffering solutions to the already identified acts and practically implementing the solutions as postulated by scholars at various level of educational stratum, he maintained that this menace have left the economy underdeveloped because of the incompetent students graduating yearly with falsified certificate or results.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The occurrence of examination malpractice at any level of educational stratum poses the greatest threat to the validity and reliability and consequently to the authenticity and recognition of certificate issued. The numerous examination malpractice among secondary school in Oshimili North Local Government Area over the years have become a growing concern. Therefore efforts should be geared towards finding possible causes of the problem among secondary school students as well as proffering solution to this menace. This research is carried out to address this problem.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this research study is to find out the various forms of examination malpractice among secondary school students and also to identify the causes with a view to proffering solution for it to be curbed.


The finings in this research work will help to:

  • Proffer solutions on how examination malpractice in biology subject can be check-mated adequately.
  • Help produce students with sound and knowledgeable instinct.
  • Help instill the attitude of hardwork in students.
  • Help the biology teacher to be better equipped in the teaching of the subject.




       The following questions were put-forward to guide the study:


  • Do you have competent biology teacher?
  • What are the attitude of students towards biology as a subject?
  • Are students given adequate assignment to enhance topic taught?
  • What is the duration of the biology lesson classes?
  • Are there adequate instructional materials for the teaching of biology?


       The study will focus mainly on examination malpractice among student from ss1-ss3 in selected schools in Oshimili North Local Government Area of Delta State.




       This research was constrained by paucity of fund. It was also affected by time.





  • EXAMINATION: An examination is a formal test taken to show one’s knowledge or intellectual ability in a particular subject, or to obtain a qualification.
  • MALPRACTICE: Is a contrary behaviour of a person on laid down laws, rules, ethics, procedures or code of conduct.
  • GUIDANCE: This is an assistance given to an individual either by an adult or counselor in order to help them discover themselves and becomes socially adaptable wherever he or she finds himself or herself.
  • COUNSELING: This is a relationship which exist between a counselor and a counselee in order to provide solution to a problem been encountered by the counselee (client).
  • COUNSELOR: Is one who gives professional advice to student, individual or organizations on the best way a particular problem should be handled.
  • SCHOOL: A school is a place or centre where formal activities of learning take place with the view of passing some cherished norms, culture and beliefs to the leaners students during this formal activity.
  • PRINCIPAL: Is a civil official that heads a secondary school.
  • STUDENT: These are crop of learner that assemble at the school in order to gain knowledge


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