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This research work was undertaken to examine the problems of quality control in manufacturing firms, the various techniques of quality control use in the firms and to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of their applications.  This study also set to find out what manufacturing firms seek to achieve through quality control practice. To achieve these objectives, a study of Nigeria Breweries Plc, Enugu was carried out.  A review of related literature was also under taken.  Date was collected through distribution of questionnaires and the use of textbooks, newspapers, magazines, and journals. The method of statistical analysis used includes table and percentage while chi-square was used to test hypotheses formulated. From the study, it was discovered that quality control practice in manufacturing firms encountered problems as a result of the following; non-awareness of quality control techniques, inability to understand the need of customers, cost of application and management attitude. It was also discovered that manufacturing firm have some quality objectives they want to achieve through quality control practice.  These include; creating a good corporate image, to meet consumer needs and create consumers satisfaction, to achieve lower cost in production etc. Based on the findings, it was recommended that training and seminars should be organized for the entire workers always, strict compliance to the established standard must be ensured and that job description should be properly done to help every staff know his or her role towards the achievement of the firm’s quality goals.




Cover page     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      i

Title page –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      ii

Certified Page  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iii

Dedication      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iv

Acknowledgement   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vi

Abstract   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vii


1.1  Background of the study –      –      –      –      –      1

1.2  Statement of the problem      –      –      –      –      8

1.3  Objective of the study           –      –      –      –      9

1.4  Research Questions –      –      –      –      –      –      9

1.5  Research Hypothesis      –      –      –      –      –      10

1.6  Significance of the study        –      –      –      –      11

1.7  Scope of the study –      –      –      –      –      –      12

1.8  Limitation of the study           –      –      –      –      12

1.9  Definitions of Terms       –      –      –      –      –      13



       Review of Related Literature –   –      –      –     


2.1  Theoretical Framework of the study —    –      –      16

2.2  Conceptual Framework of the Study      –      –      19

2.3  Historical Background of the study –      –      –      22

2.4  Quality Analysis      –      –      –      –      –      –      26

2.5  Quality Assurance   –      –      –      –           –      32

2.6  Total Quality Management –    –      –      –      –      33

2.7  Quality Standard Establishment     –      –      –      36

2.8  Factors Affecting Quality of a Product –   –      –      39

2.9  Quality Control Techniques     –      –      –      –      40

2.10 Responsibility for Quality Control   –      –      –      45

2.11 Problems of Quality Control    –      –      –      –      46

2.12 Prospect of Quality Control     –      –      –      –      48


       Research Design and Methodology –       –       –       52

3.1  Research Design     –      –      –      –      –      –      52

3.2  Area of the Study    –      –      –      –      –      –      52

3.3  Source of Data        –      –      –      –      –      –      52

3.3.1 Primary Data  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      52

3.3.2 Secondary Data     –      –      –      –      –      –      53

3.4  Population of the study   –      –      –      –      –      53

3.5  Sample Size determination and Sampling Techniques 55

3.6  Instrument for Data Collection –      –      –      –      59

3.7  Validity of the Instrument       –      –      –      –      59

3.8  Reliability of the Instrument   –      –      –      –      60

3.9  Method of Data Presentation and Analysis      –      60

4.1  Data Presentation and Analysis of Data  –      –      62

4.2  Testing of Hypothesis –   –      –      –      –      –      76

4.3  Decision Rule   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      79


       Summary of Findings, Conclusion and  Recommendations

5.1  Summary of Findings-    –      –      –      –      –      86

5.2  Conclusion      –      –      –      –      –      —    –      88

5.3  Recommendations – –      –      –      –      –      –      89

5.4  Suggestion for Further Research     –      –      –      92








Quality is a term that carries important meaning to both producer and customer. In the global market place today, many organizations realized that its survival in the business world depend highly on producing high quality products and services. Indeed, a lot of organizations have emphasized that quality should have to put in place, integrated within the management  system, especially in terms of bringing the end products or service to the customer, especially with intense competition arriving from the rival(International Business Research, 2009).

Gbadeyan and Adeoti (2005) quality is the conformance to requirement and those requirement must be defined in measurable and clearly stated term. Quality is one of the goals and objectives organization seeks to achieve. But often times, this goal is not achieved due to some problems in the firms. The quality of any company’s product or service determines its position in the market. This is because customers desire to get the best value of their money. The quality of product or service can only be defined by the customer(Deming,2000). This means that for a firm to be satisfied with the quality of its goods or services, its customers must be satisfied with it.

Quality is a complex concept that has become one of the most appealing in management theories. This is to say that every business today wants to produce quality products or services that are acceptable to consumers, which are also affordable.

Quality control is a functional management discipline, which is responsible for defining quality purpose. The prerequisite for effect ive quality control are freedom from deficiency and minimization or reduction of the following costs ;  waste, re-work, replacement and inspection costs.  All these are manufacturing problems that should not only be detected and corrected at the earliest time but prevented if possible. (Juran, 2000).

Quality control can therefore be achieved by establishing a standard for effective and efficient quality in the following areas:

  • In the factory building, machinery and equipment design and installation, manufacturing system and process as well as product identification system.
  • In product design.
  • In the market by way of intensive consumer response program which gives the needed feedback.

In addition to the established standards tolerance limits are set for every important quality. These tolerance limits are limits of variations beyond which the variations will not be accepted. The firms must determine what quality’ needed by their customers and must try as much as possible to satisfy these needs.   Meeting these quality needed by consumers should be a collective responsibility of everybody in an organization. The market research division will find out what these needs are, Products development division will create a design to equate with the needs. Planning division will devise a process for executing the product desired and the production units will regulate the process to achieve the desired product quality.

Also quality control in manufacturing firms will seek to ensure efficiency in terms of purchasing quality raw materials, the machine or conversion equipment and quality of labor or human effort because the quality of these factors mentioned above determine the quality of the end product.  (Orga,  2011:7).

Furthermore, Nigerian business environment changes with ever changing work processes, practice and employees habits.  As a result of these changes, firms that are resistant to change or that cannot respond quickly and adequately to change are prone to have problem which will in long run affect their productivity and profit margin adversely.

Although, the success of every manufacturing firm depends mainly on the degree of its reputation, for supplying quality products to its consumers.  Yet, the realization of quality standard has been a problem to   manufacturing firm.  For manufacturing firms to be successful, they must place great emphasis on the establishment and maintenance of quality control policies of their firm and that of government.  The personnel responsible for effective quality control must be familiar with required activities in all quality control systems.  It is required that quality procedure for each section must be strictly adhered to in order to achieve.

However, it is a common knowledge that Nigerian market is being flooded with a lot of sub-standard products.  Despite effort made by Nigeria government in establishing an enabling Act number 56 of December 1971 known as Standard organization of Nigeria (SON) of which one of its objectives is to make sure that manufacturing firms produce standard relating products, measurement, materials process and service among others, Nigerian market is still experiencing sub-standard products.

On Monday 18th March, 2013, the daily Sun Newspaper interviewed the Director General of Standard Organization of Nigeria (Mr. Joseph Odumodu) based on how to control the quality of products in Nigeria manufacturing firms, he said a lot of things.  He said that in the year 2011, the average level of sub-standard product in the country was about 80% but now in 2013, it has been reduced to 40% but they   believed, it will be shifted to 30%.  The problem of quality control has become a blow to manufacturing firms in particular and Nigeria in general as a result of this, they (SON) went ahead to establish certain activities in order to control quality of products such activities  are:

  • Electronic Product Registration Scheme (EPRS)
  • Product liability insurance

In order to assesss product standard and if actually there is any sub-standard among them, they can easily detect the producer with the help of Electronic Product Registration Scheme (EPRS).  Also in a situation where consumers are being harmed as a result of using any product.  With the help of product liability insurance, compensation can be given to such fellow.  Also in 2005, they introduced scheme known as standard organization of Nigeria offshore conformity Assessment Program which is related to pre-shipment verification of quality. Yet there is still problem of quality control in Nigeria manufacturing firms.

As a result of these problems of quality control, manufacturing firms in Nigeria are battling with.  This leads to research on the challenges of quality control in manufacturing firms and at the same time to find a way  out of these problems.  A study of Nigerian Breweries Plc, Enugu state chapter.


The following are the problems of quality control in manufacturing firms:

  1. It caused the production of sub-standard goods.
  2. It hindered the manufacturing firms from the achievement of it goals and objectives.
  3. It terminate the image of manufacturing firms.
  4. it made the price of the product manufactured to be below or above competitive price.
  5. It caused the market share of the manufacturing firms to decline to the lowest level.

This study is being carried out in order to achieve the following objectives.

  1. To find out the problems facing quality control, their causes and possible solutions.
  2. To identity the different technique of quality control in the manufacturing firm.
  3. To determine if efficient quality control can increase profitability in manufacturing firms.


In order to achieve the objective mentioned above, the researcher drafted the following research questions;

  1. What are the problems facing quality control their causes and possible solution?
  2. What are the different techniques of quality control in the manufacturing firms?
  3. Can efficient quality control increase profitability in manufacturing firms?


The following are the research hypothesis of this study.

Ho1: There is no problem facing quality control in the manufacturing firms.

Ha1: There are problems facing quality control in the manufacturing firms.

Ho2: There is no technique of quality control in the manufacturing firms.

Ha2: There are techniques of quality control in the manufacturing firms.

Ho3: There is no relationship between quality control and increase in profitability of manufacturing firms.

Ha3: There is relationship between quality control and increase in profitability of manufacturing firms.


The significant of this study will be tremendous to management of an organization, particularly to production managers. Its significant is as follows:

  1. It will reveal the problems of quality control as well as how to solve or manage the problems i.e being adaptive to it.
  2. It will also ensure that efficient quality control mechanisms are in operation from time to time.
  3. The study will be seen as a means of ensuring that company’s goodwill is sustain and increase as well.
  4. It will help the manufacturing firms to increase their profitability by producing standard product.
  5. It will enable the manufacturing firms engage in similar operation to take a cue from Nigerian Breweries since it will expose the idea of quality control.

This study is focused on the challenges of quality control in manufacturing firms.  Due to certain limitations, the study will be narrowed down to Nigerian Breweries Plc, Enugu Chapter.




This study is limited of time constraints, inadequate finance as well as the restrictive security network at Nigerian Breweries Plc.  However, effort will be made to ensure that necessity for the objectives are gathered for the study.



The following terms are defined in relation to the above topic

  • Conformance: Is a state in which something is in accordance with established guidelines, specification or legislation or process of becoming so.
  • Control; this is the act of checking current performance, against pre-determined objectives.
  • Management; is the process of doing things using the effort of others to achieve an objective. Also doing things through and with people.
  • Planning; this is the act of determining in advance the operation and preparing the appropriate methods of effective action and determining the targets or expected performance of cost and output (profitability).
  • Quality; these are those features of products or services which meet customers need and thereby provide customer satisfaction. Quality in this sense is oriented to income .the purpose of such higher quality is to provide greater customer satisfaction and to increase income.




Deming,w.e. (2000) “Out of Crisis” Revised Edition,      Cambridge , Managing Institute of Technology.


Gbadeyan, R.A. and Adeoti, J.O (2005) “Total Quality    Management”. An MBA Seminar presentation to the   Department of Business Administrtation, University of Illorin


Juran J. M. and (2000) “Early Scientific Quality Control; A

Historical supplement Quality Process” Vol. 30(9) Pg 73-81


Orga, C. C. (2011) ”Production Management”, Revised

Edition, Veamaks Publisher, Enugu


The Daily Sun Newspaper (2013) Volume 10 No. 2583,

Monday March 18th






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