This project work, characterization of some branded motor oil was aimed at studying and analyzing the characteristics/properties of lubricating oils of various brands it also exphered the origin, properties, refining and exploration techniques of crude oil to produce variety of products such as liquid petrol, lubricating oil, waxes etc.
Furthermore, physical tests or characterization tests such as viscously, density, flash point and colour measurement were performed on four different samples of lubricating oils from different manufactures such as total SAE 40 Quartz 2500 super heavy duty engine oil, MOBIL HD – 40 SAE 40, AP Super V 20w-50 viscostatic, and total SAE 40 PLUS in order to asses the qualities of these lubricating oils. The viscosity was done using the viscometer, the flash point test were conducted using the c level and cup flash point tester and the density obtained using the simple hydrometer measurement and the result were recorded as Sharon in section 2.7 of chapter two the viscosities of the various brand analysed fall between 32 and 33kg/ms, where as the flash points is between 2200C to 240C.
This work was also extended to cover the various types of lubricating also such as Engine oil, general purpose lubricant, gear oils, marine oil, and hydraulic oils; and their primary and secondary functions and the various classifications of lubricating oils such as society of automotive engineers (SAE), American Petroleum Institute (AP) and International standard Organization (ISO) classification, which are based on viscosity.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE ii
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL iii
APPROVAL PAGE iv
TABLE OF CONTENT ix
1.1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.2 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE 4
- HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF
LUBRICATIONS OILS 5
- PRODUCTION OF OIL 8
- CRUDE OIL EXPLORATION TECHNIQUE 11
- CRUDE OIL REFINING 13
- PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 16
- LUBRICATING OILS AND LUBRICANTS 20
- FUNCTIONS OF LUBRICATING OILS
AND LUBRICANTS 21
- MINERAL OILS 23
- TYPES OF LUBRICATING OIL 26
- VISCOSITY CLASSIFICATION OF
LUBRICATING OIL 28
- Analysis of some selected branded motor oils 30
- CHANGE IN VISCOSITY OF LUBRICATING OIL WITH TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE. 31
- LOW-TEMPERATURE VISCOSITY AND EASE OF STARTING 34
- ADDITIVES 37
- Properties of lubricating oils 44
2.8.1 Blending Of Lubricating Oil 51
- Motor oil deterioration 52
- METHODS OF CHARACTERIZATION
OF MOTOR OILS 55
- EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF
LUBRICATING OILS 58
- RESULT ANALYSIS 59
4.1 DISCUSSION 61
4.2 CONCLUSION 64
4.3 RECOMMENDATION 65
Oil is viscous combustible, water – immiscible liquids that are soluble in certain organic solvent as ether and naphtha; may be of an animal, vegetable, mineral or synthetic origin. We have various types such as fixed oils, volatile or essential oils and mineral oils.
Motor oil belongs to the class of fixed oils, which derive its source from crude oil, or petroleum. It is used as either lubricant to reduce friction between two surfaces in contact, to prevent corrosion and also to power some automatic engines.
Crude oil, or petroleum which is the origin of motor oil, is the most valuable and the most versatile of earths buried treasures. Oil provides us with a number of different fuels, each of which is essential to modern civilization. Petrol, aviation fuel, diesel fuel and heating oil are all refined from crude oil. During the last 100 years, the search for oil has spread to ever more remote and difficult areas: hot deserts, offshore water and polar wastes.
More recently, natural gas has also emerged as an important fuel, and in many parts of the word it is piped directly into houses for domestic heating and cooking. Oil and gas are frequently found together. By weight, oil and gas consist almost entirely of the elements carbon and hydrogen. Chemically, these two elements are combined into thousand of different compounds known as hydrocarbons. Oil and gas occur in natural underground reservoirs that may lie thousands of metre below the surface.
Both oil and gas have been known since ancient times, but they were very little used before the 1860s. The first oil well was drilled in Pennsylvania, USA, 1859. Within a few decades, oil had also been discovered in other countries. the most recently – developed oil field are in the polar regions of Alaska and Siberia.
Oil has become the world’s most important fuel, which, when refined, is used for domestic and industrial heating and for powering the engines of our machines. Natural gas was once considered a waste product, but is now widely exploited as a heating fuel.
There are various other useful by-product obtained from crude oil, or petroleum, such as petrochemical used as raw material for many industries, and organic solvent like Methane, Hexane etc.
Motor oil is highly viscous and soapy in nature to the touch. It has a high density and high boiling point of 800kgm-3 and 4000C respectively. Motor oil is a selected fraction of refined petroleum with or without additives used to modify frictional effects between moving parts. There are varieties of motor branded and unbranded grades.
However, in the course of this project emphasis will be laged on the branded motor oil. A good numbers of the branded oil will be examined by identifying and analyzing the characteristic qualities of the various brands. Motor oil in this sense refers to the engine oils.
Designing lubricates or motor oil to perform function of friction and wear reduction, heat removal and contaminate suspension in different systems are a complex tusk, involving a careful balance of properties both in the lube base struck and the performance enhancing additives. It is known that between five and ten thousand different lubricants, lubrication formulations are necessary to satisfy more than 90% of all lubricant applications.
SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this project is to study and analyse the characteristics of lubricating oil of various brands and their formulations. The characteristic properties of all the lubricating oils and their classification.
This project provide an overview of all the characteristics of lubricating oil especially those of the branded types, and factors affecting proper lubricant performance.
Also, investigated in this piece are lubrication theory, base stock characteristics, additives and its functions.
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