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Excessive use of the lecture method in teaching science to secondary school
students has been faulted by science educators: It leads to low and under
achievements among other adverse effects. This study was therefore, carried
out in response to the call on science teachers to evolve innovative, and if
possible, integrated method techniques as alternatives to the over use of the
lecture method. Consequently, the study investigated the effects of PlaySimulations and Teaching-With-Analogy (P-STWA) on achievements in
Chemistry among secondary school students. The study was carried out in
Owerri Education Zone of Imo State. From a population of 1,202 Senior
Secondary School Class 2 (SS2) students, 270 were sampled from nine
secondary schools that participated in the study. General Mental Ability Test
(GMAT) was used to isolate a pool of students of average mental ability, from
where the sample was randomly selected. A three experimental, control group
pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Each of the nine schools involved
represented a class and in each of the experimental or control groups, three
school types were represented – Boys Only, Girls Only and Mixed Schools.
While the experimental groups received six weeks of Chemistry lessons in the
P-STWA method, the controls were divided into two – one group received
their lessons (six weeks also) in the lecture method, the other received no
lessons at all. All groups were administered with pre-test and post-test using
teacher made Achievement Test in Chemistry (ATIC) research instrument.
Four research questions guided the study and four hypotheses were also
tested. ATIC was sub-divided into sections A, B, and C with KR21 reliability
indices of 0.912, 0.868 and 0.892 respectively. Each section of ATIC tested
achievement at a different cognitive ability level – Recall, Comprehension and
Application respectively. Mean achievements were used to answer the
research questions; Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to test the
hypotheses. The results revealed that students taught chemistry using PSTWA method achieved significantly higher than those in the control groups.
Among the P-STWA groups however, Boys Only schools achieved significantly
higher than Girls and mixed schools only at the level of Application.
Implications of the findings were highlighted. One major recommendation
was that science teachers generally and chemistry teachers in particular
should evolve integrated method techniques instead of relying solely on
lecture method in delivering secondary school Chemistry lessons. Further
research was suggested, especially in the area of male-female secondary
school students’ achievement in science.
Title Page i
Approval page ii
Acknowledgements iii
Abstract iv
Table of contents v
List of tables vii
List of appendices ix
Certification page xi
Dedication page xii
Chapter One: Introduction
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 3
Purpose of the Study 4
Significance of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Hypotheses 7
Scope of the Study 8
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
Conceptual Frame Work for the Study 9
Theoretical Frame Work for the Study 18
Relevant Theoretical Studies Reviewed 23
Relevant Empirical Studies Reviewed 32
Summary of Review of Related Literature 37
Chapter Three: Method 39
Research Design 39
Area of Study 41
Population of the Study 42
Sample and sampling Techniques 42
Procedures and controls 45
Context Variables 46
Treatment Procedure Adopted 49
Administration of Post-Test 54
Instrumentation 55
General Mental Ability Test Used (GMAT) 55
Personal Data Questionnaire (PDQ) 57
Achievement Test in Chemistry (ATIC) 58
Validation of the Instrument 58
Content Validity 58
Difficulty Level and Discrimination Indices 59
Reliability of the Instrument 61
Method of Data Collection 62
Method of Data Analysis 62
Discussion 83
Implications of Findings 91
Conclusions 93
Recommendations 93
Limitations of the Study 94
Suggestions for Further Studies 95
Table1: Experimental Design for the Study 40
Table2: Number of School Types in the Experimental and
Control Groups 46
Table 3: Proportion of the Population of Study in the Various
Mental Ability Groups 57
Table 4: Summary of Overall Achievements of Students
According to Teaching Method 63
Table 5: Summary of Mean Achievements of Student Groups
At Specific Cognitive Ability Levels Against
the Teaching Methods 65
Table 6: ANCOVA Table for Testing Hypothesis 1 For
Student Groups’ Overall Mean Achievements
According to Lecture, P-STWA and the
No Lesson Group 70
Table 7: ANCOVA procedure for testing hypothesis 2 For
Student Groups’ Achievements at the Cognitive
Ability Level of Recall for Lecture, P-STWA
and No Lesson Group 72
Table 8: ANCOVA procedure for testing hypothesis 2 For
Student Groups’ Achievements at the Cognitive
Ability Level of Comprehension, Lecture, PSTWA
and the Lesson Group 74
Table 9: ANCOVA procedure for testing hypothesis 2 For
Student Groups’ Achievements at the Cognitive
Ability Level of Application, Lecture, P-STWA
and the Lesson Group 76
Table 10: ANCOVA procedure for testing hypothesis 3
For Male and Female Student Groups’ Achievements
At the Various Cognitive Ability Levels with
P-STWA Teaching Method 78
Table 11: ANCOVA procedure for testing hypothesis 4
For the Achievements of Student Groups From
Different School Types at the Various Cognitive
Ability Levels for P-STWA Teaching Method 80
Appendix i: Population and Sample of SS2 Chemistry
Students By LGA and School Type 106
Appendix ii: List of all Students that Participated/Attendance
Register 107
Appendix iii: Response Sheet Seeking Personal Data
From participants 116
Appendix iv: Notice of Commencement of Lesson Contacts
Given to Principals of Participating School 117
Appendix v Grand Norms for Classroom Behaviour for the
Study 119
Appendix vi: Consent /Acknowledgement Letter By the
School Principals 121
Appendix vii: Comprehensive Time Table for the
Experiments 123
Appendix viii: Response Sheet to ATIC Questions 125
Appendix ix: Scheme of Work Used in the Study 127
Appendix x Table of Specifications for ATIC 129
Appendix xi: Unit Plan Used in the Study 130
Appendix xii: Lesson Plans in Each Teaching Method
Adopted (a) Lecture Method 135
(b) P-STWA Method 159
Appendix xiii: Achievement Test in Chemistry (ATIC) 189
Appendix xiv: Marking Scheme for ATIC Instrument 201
Appendix xv: A list of Analogies Drawn from the Play
Used to Teach the Topic Metals and Their
Compounds 206
Appendix xvi: Raw Scores of Student – Groups
Who Participate In the Study
a. Those exposed to Lecture Method 209
b. Those exposed to P-STWA Method 212
c. Those in the No Lesson Group 215
Appendix xvii Item Analysis for ATIC Research Instrument 218
Appendix xviii: Computer Print out of Statistical Analyses 224
Appendix xix: a. Supervisor’s Letter of Introduction 238
b. Researcher’s Letter Seeking Permission
From Principals of Schools 239
Appendix xx Group photographs of Researcher
and participants 240
Background to the Study
The researcher has noted with much concern observations in
literature of secondary school students’ persistent low and under
achievements in science subjects (Adeboye, 1986, Ezeudu, 2000).
These observations are even more worrisome as they are said to
adversely affect these students’ performance in such external
examinations as JAMB and SSCE. More so, it is worse in such
technologically relevant subjects as Chemistry, Physics and
Mathematics (Nweke, 2000).
The attention of the researcher is equally drawn to the great
importance accorded the subject Chemistry and its relevance to
technological development of any nation (Osuagwu, 2005 a). For
instance, Okafor (2000) cited the deplorable state of science education
in the country as hinged on poor performance, dwindling interest and
negative attitude to Chemistry among others. In the bid to offer an
explanation, Olayiwola (2000) opined that over the years, Chemistry
lesson delivering in Nigeria secondary schools has proved ineffective.
In seeking how to tap the great potentials of play-simulations and
analogous teaching in delivering science lessons and at the same time
undermine their possible individual weaknesses, the researcher
combined both strategies and evolved an integrated method: Playsimulations and Teaching with Analogy – P-STWA. This is with the hope
that their combined effects will reduce, if not totally eliminate their
individual weaknesses and thereby lead to even greater effectiveness as
a science lesson delivery strategy. The absence of any research reports
in literature of the effects of such an integrated method on achievement
in chemistry among secondary school students is a strong drive on the
part of the researcher to carry out this study.
The researcher therefore, planned to implement this combined
strategy of Play-simulations and Teaching With Analogy – P-STWA, by
using a theatre presentation of a drama book titled “Courtroom of Crazy
Elements” ( Onwukwe,2005) The book is one in a series for “Teaching
and Learning Science through Plays”, specifically prepared for chemistry
students. The play is available both in print and electronic forms.
Analogies drawn from the different scenes and elements of the play
were also planned for use in actual classroom presentations of chemistry
lessons to students. In this way, both strategies will actually weave into
one: Where play leaves room for triviality, analogy will bring in substance
as it creates room for knew knowledge that would otherwise have been
very tasking. It is hoped that this also will help do away with doubt. Since
analogies will be drawn from one source, the play, digression will be
checked on the part of the teacher. The fun and relaxation inherent in
the play together with the experience of ease in acquisition of new and
relevant knowledge, it is hoped, fear will be transformed to faith among
the students as they reach their goals . The T-W-A model itself has inbuilt checks to eliminate confusion and unplanned use of analogies
because the analogies will be written out ahead of time.
By applying the strategy of P-STWA in presenting chemistry to
secondary school students, the researcher hoped to find answers to
questions like “will an integrated method for presenting secondary school
chemistry actually lead the students to achieve at their full potentials?”
“Will such an integrated method as P-STWA lead students to higher
achievements in chemistry than the single method of lecture?” Only an
empirical study in which variables are carefully controlled and
observations keenly made can provide dependable answers to these
Statement of the Problem
Low achievements in science generally, and in Chemistry in
particular, among secondary school students is bad enough. This is
when viewed from the perspective of their importance in technological
development of any nation, especially a country considered to be
underdeveloped like Nigeria. The greater worry is even the observation
that secondary school students are under achieving and that the use of
lecture method of lesson delivery is to blame. Science educators believe
that achievement of students at their full potentials could be a function
of appropriate lesson delivery techniques of the teachers among others.
The present researcher therefore poised to investigate the effects
of incorporating plays and analogies drawn from them into Chemistry
lesson delivery among Senior Secondary School students. It is hopped
that such an investigation will help the researcher find answers to such
questions as: Will play-simulations and teaching with analogy (P-STWA),
as a Chemistry lesson delivery technique lead students to achieve better
than the traditional lecture method? How will P-STWA influence
achievement in Chemistry among students from different school types as
well as among the sexes?
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to find out how combining the
instructional mode of play–simulations (P-S) and Teaching-WithAnalogy (TWA) into one mode, P-STWA will affect achievement of
secondary schools students in chemistry. Specifically, the study
investigated the following:
i. Over all achievement of students taught chemistry with
the P-STWA model of instruction and those taught with
the traditional lecture method and those that received no
lessons at all.
ii. Achievements of students taught chemistry with the PSTWA method and those taught with the traditional
lecture method as well as those that received no lessons
at all at three different levels of cognitive abilities
namely, recall, comprehension and application of
iii. iii The effects of P-STWA model of instruction on male
and female students’ achievement in chemistry at the
recall, comprehension and application levels of cognitive
iv. iv How the P-STWA model of teaching chemistry will
affect achievement of students from different school
types – Boys only, Girls only, and mixed schools in
chemistry at the recall, comprehension and application
levels of cognitive abilities.
Significance of the Study
The following groups of people are expected to benefit directly
from the study: Secondary school students, science teachers and
science teacher educators. Others are education administrators, theatre
artists, and parents.
Students will benefit from the study if is proved that playsimulations and Teaching-With-Analogy as a model of science
instructions lead to higher achievement in science. They will learn to
spend quality time in studies even while enjoying science drama. By so
doing, the students will also learn to generate their own analogies,
thereby deepening their knowledge of science.
For science teachers, there will be a sure route to follow to take
their students to what has remained a mirage in the past – sustained
interest and high achievement in science generally and chemistry in
particular. The teachers’ creativity will equally be challenged as they will
be motivated to sketch plays useable in this model of instruction. These
plays if vetted and passed could be produced for use in schools and
homes. High level of job satisfaction will follow as one’s efforts meet
target objectives – high performance of students. Science teacher
educators will have new grounds for fundamental studies in generating,
sustaining interest and deepening knowledge in science lessons as may
be depicted by chemistry in this study.
Theatre artists will have widened scope of operation and challenges
too. Their chief business will no longer be entertainment alone. The reorientation of adapting plays to the teaching and learning of chemistry
and even science in general, will impact positively on their skills for the
benefit of national development.
The frustration parents go through to attract their children into
science education will ease off finally. What joy to see one’s children
learning chemistry, and possibly other science subjects with joyful tears
in sitting rooms, something for every one to share even as students learn
at the same time?
Finally, Government will be motivated for more investment into
chemistry education as she sees previous investments as producing
results. Government, in the ministries and commissions of education can
create an agency that will encourage research in, production and control
of the use of these plays in science instructions. This will even afford the
opportunity to diversify national cultural heritage.
Research Questions
Four research questions were raised for this study:
(i) Is there any difference in over all mean scores achieved by
student groups taught chemistry by the methods of lecture,
P-STWA and those that received no lessons?
(ii) At which of the following cognitive ability levels – recall,
Comprehensive and application, did Chemistry student
groups who were taught by the P-STWA method, lecture and
those that received no lessons achieved the highest mean
(iii) Which of male and female student groups who were taught
Chemistry by the P-STWA achieved the highest mean score
at the cognitive ability levels of recall, comprehension and
(iv) Students from which of the following school types – Boys
only, Girls only and Mixed, having been taught Chemistry by
the P-STWA method achieved the highest at the levels of
recall, comprehension and application?
Four hypotheses were also tested in this study:
(i) There is no significant difference in the overall mean
achievements made by student groups who were taught
Chemistry separately by the methods of Lecture, P-STWA
and those that received no lessons at all.
(ii) There is no significant difference in the means achieved by
student groups taught chemistry by the lecture, P-STWA
methods and the no lessons groups, at the cognitive ability
levels of recall, comprehension and application.
(iii) Male and female student groups who were taught Chemistry
by the P-STWA method did not achieve significantly different
means at the cognitive ability levels of recall, comprehension
and application.
(iv) Students groups from different school types who were taught
Chemistry by the P-STWA method did not achieve
significantly different means at the cognitive ability levels of
recall, comprehension and application.
Scope of the Study
This study was limited to the topic “Metals and their Compounds”.
Specifically, the content areas covered were only general properties of
metals, alkali metals e.g. Sodium and its compounds, alkali earth metals
e.g. calcium and its compounds, general introduction to transition metals
and detection of such metallic ions as Ca2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Ba2+, and


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