In a society where people with a diverse interests, views and values coexist, differences between such individuals and group are to be
expected. This research “CONFLICT MANAGEMENT &
ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE”, in Nigerian Breweries Plc,
Enugu, is aimed at critically looking at conflict situations and it’s causes,
as well as possible areas of improvement of conflicting situations for a
better working environment in an Organisation. The research shows that
Conflict comes from incompatibility of goals and interest and the result
destroys the Organization. Conflict affects the Organisation in several
ways such as decreased employee satisfaction, insubordination,
decreased productivity, leads to economic loss, fragmentation.
Descriptive and survey study were the tools used to elicit information.
The major findings are that That Education does not have any effect on
the opinion of respondents on Conflict Management Strategies. That
there is no Significance different between the opinion of male and female
respondents on the causes of Conflict. That there is a significant effect of
Conflict on Organisational performance. The major conclusions drawn
are that management strategies adopted in handling Conflict will not be
affected by differences in Educational Qualification of the respondents,
That management strategies adopted in handling Conflict will not be
affected by differences in Educational Qualification of the respondents,
also that the causes of Conflict in an Organisation will not have any
difference whether it came from the male or female respondents. That
the causes of Conflict in an Organisation will not have any difference
whether it came from the male or female respondents. The
Recommendations are as follows. That Management must adopt Conflict
Management strategies that will improve on the Performance of the
Organisation. That management should ensure a free flow of
communication between the management and the employee.
Management should encourage and promote interpersonal relationships
among co-workers to improve on their morale
1. 2.1 – The Conflict Process 15
2. 2.2 – The Conflict Process 20
3. 2.3 – The Conflict Process 25
4. 4.1- Sex distribution of the respondents 48
5. 4.2- Age distribution of the respondents 49
6. 4.3- Distribution of respondents by marital status 49
7. 4.4- Distribution of respondents by educational qualification 50
8. 4.5- Responses to research question one 51
9. 4.6- Responses to research question two 53
10. 4.7- Responses to research question three 54
11. 4.8- Z Test for Hypothesis one 56
12. 4.9- Z Test for Hypothesis two 57
13. 4.10- Z Test for Hypothesis three 58
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page 1
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Theoretical framework
1.3 Statement of the problem
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Research Hypotheses
1.7 Significance of the study
1.8 Scope of the study
1.9 Limitations of the study
2.2 Concept of Organizational Conflict
2.3 Types of Organizational Conflict
2.4 Conflict Process
2.5 Causes of Conflict
2.6 Signs of Conflict
2.7 Consequences of Conflict
2.8 Conflict Management Techniques
Research Design and Methodology
3.2 Research design
3.3 Data collection method
3.4 Population and sampling procedure
3.5 Data analysis technique
Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.1 Preliminary presentation of data
4.2Research questions/ objective of study
4.2.1- Research question one
4.2.2- Research question two
4.2.3 -Research question three
4.3 -Hypotheses testing
4.3.1- Hypothesis one
4.3.2- Hypothesis two
4.3.3 Hypothesis three
Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.2 Summary of findings
1.1 Background of the Study
Within any organization, there are usually different positions and
jobs. People occupying these positions have different perceptions,
goals, thought and concerns. It is difficult to conceptualize a
society or an organization without inherent differences and
contradictions and these leads to conflict. Conflict can be a serious
problem in an organization. It can create organizational climate
that makes it nearly impossible for employees to work together.
Conflict is a natural and inevitable part of people working together
and should be kept at a manageable level where it will not
disorganize the activities of the organization towards the
attainment of it’s objectives.
Conflict can also said to be beneficial to the organization where it
brings about radical change in the organization existing power
structure, current interaction pattern and entrenched attitude and
also can lead to increase in productivity. While some conflicts are
functional others are not. It can also affect the organization
negatively when it is associated with decreased employee
satisfaction, insubordination, decreased productivity, leads to
economic loss, fragmentation to mention but a few. It is the
management major responsibility to device strategies in bringing
down conflict as low as possible, which will enable the organization
to still function to succeed (Robbins & Sanghi, 2005:418) against
this background the study was being carried out on the negative
effect of conflict.
1.2 Theoretical Framework
The Theoretical Framework is based on the effect of conflict on
Organisational performance. Conflict is a disagreement in which
parties involved disagree about facts or opinion expressed by
those in authority.
There are different views based on those effects in this respect we
shall discuss the functional and dysfunctional Conflict
(Ivanceveich, Konopaske and Matteson (2005: 365).
Functional Conflict is a Confrontation between groups that
enhances the organizational performance. e.g various department
in an organization may be Conflict over most efficient and adaptive
method of achieving a goal. They may agree on a goal but not on
the means to achieving it. Without this type of conflict their will be
little commitment to change.
The second is the dysfunctional Conflict and it is Confrontation
between groups that harm or hinder the organizational goal.
Management must seek to eliminate dysfunctional Conflict.
Similarly, (www.ehow.com) view the effects of conflict as
1. Insubordination- Insubordination develops because employees do not
think management can maintain control over the company.
2. Drop in productivity.- Allowing a conflict to continue means that
employee attention becomes more focused on the conflict and not
3. Lack of Direction- Conflict can sometimes arise when management
is unable to communicate the direction of the company to
employees. Conflict will erupt as employees are allowed to interpret
change within the company in their own way.
4. Fragmentation- Conflict creates rival functions. Sometimes those
functions are individuals, sometimes they are groups. Unresolved
conflict can create tension between groups that may normally need
to work together.
5. Lack of New Ideas- Groups in conflicts tends not to collaborate on
new ideas. When conflicts goes unresolved it can be difficult to
create new ideas the company needs to solve problems it is facing.
Effects of Conflict also have both functional and dysfunctional
outcome(Robbins and Sanghi, (2006:410). Functional Outcomes – It
is hard to visualize a situation in which open or violent aggression
may be functional. But there are a number of instances in which it’s
on possible to envision how low or moderate levels of conflict could
improve the effectiveness of a group.
Conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions,
stimulates creativity and innovation, encourages interest and
curiosity among group members, provides the medium through
which problems can be aired and tension released, and foster an
environment of self evaluation and change.
Dysfunctional Outcomes – The destructive consequences of conflict
on a group or organization’s performance are generally well known. A
reasonable summary might state: uncontrolled opposition breed
discontent, which act to dissolve common ties, and eventually lead to the
destruction of the group. Dysfunctional varieties can reduce group
effectiveness. Among the more undesirable consequences are a
retarding of communication, reductions in group cohesiveness and
subordination of group goals to the primary of infighting between
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Every successful organization realizes different opposing views
and debate in creating the organizational decisions. The decisions
are focused on the side of the business leaders and on the side of
the employees, either way, conflict is also present. Organization is
clearly described as the collection of people working together to
achieve a common goal.
In the concept of organization, the people or the members working
under the umbrella of the leader are considered as a team that has
a harmony and creates relationship in every activity that they do.
On the other hand, the conflict is an action where there is a
disagreement. The different behaviours of those members working
together as a team are sometimes subject to conflict. Conflict
come from incompatible goals and interest and the result might
destroy the organization. (www.Ivythesis.typepad.com )
It also results in decreased employee satisfaction, insubordination,
decreased productivity, leads to economic losses, fragmentation
e.t.c. These problem results in organizational looses which impact
negatively on performance. These conflicts are intended to be
studied in a broad and detailed manner.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study is to determine the impact of
Conflict and Conflict Management in the organizational conflict. It’s
specific objectives will include:-
(1) To ascertain how conflict will be managed effectively
(2) To ascertain the major causes of conflict
(3) To access the effect of organizational conflict on
(4) Finally to make recommendations for the stated problem
based on the finding’s from the study.
1.5 Research Questions
This will provide a comprehensive description of the purpose of the
Some questions to be answered in this study includes:-
a. What are the causes of organizational conflict
b. What are the effects of such conflict on the
c. What techniques do managers adopt in solving such
1.6 Hypotheses of the Study
Hypothesis (i) – Education has no effect on the opinion of
respondents on conflict management strategies.
Hypothesis (ii) – There is no significant different between the
opinion of male and female respondents on the causes of conflict
in an organization.
Hypothesis (iii) – There is no significant effect of conflict on an
1.7 Significance of the Study
The study is considered relevant to Nigerian Breweries Plc,
Since the effect of conflict can hinder the performance of the
Organization. It will also help in creating a cordial relationship,
which is necessary for a conducive environment.
The knowledge gained will also be vital the government in making
the right policies that will positively affect the industries; it is also
relevant to business students in furthering their studies.
The owners of industries will also benefit in this study, which will
provide a model for an effective means of man aging Conflict.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study covered conflict management in Nigerian Breweries Plc,
as a manufacturing Company. It has multiple department and the
effects of conflict must be managed and kept low.
1.9 Limitations of the Study
The study however was not without hindrances and these limited
the research. Some of the limitations encountered by the
(1) The inability to gain access into various department that
make up Nigerian Breweries Plc, as a whole
(2) There was also the refusal of taking out important journals
and articles relating to the field of study for proper studying
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