This research work focuses on conflict management in the local government system in Anambra state with special reference to Awka south local government area. The purpose of this work is to examine sources of conflict and hindrances of conflict management, how they are being handled and possibly proffer solution to the problem. The research question was formulated on the major sources of conflict and the hindrances to conflict management in Awka south local government area. Three (3) hypotheses are being formulated in line with the purpose of the study. based on the significance of the study, the study has the potentiality of generating comprehensive and effective conflict management strategies capable of addressing the various conflict situations within the system, which will now make it possible for administrators and practitioners of the local government to learn to live with conflict, and with a view to making choices and seeking to transform creative way. This research study covers the wide area of Awka south local government council from 2015 – 2017. The population of the study is 523 while the sample size is 227 which was determined through Yaro Yamine formula (n = N/1+N (e)2). The instruments used for data collection are questionnaire, oral interview and personal observation. Data analysis is therefore based on the 200 copies of the returned questionnaires and hypothesis were tested by the use of chi-square formula (X2 = ). The finding revealed that non-payment of salaries/wages is the main source of conflict and barriers to communication are the main hindrance of conflict management in Awka South local government area. The researcher therefore conclude that the prevailing conflict management techniques in the system are adequate and ineffective as they are fraught with inconsistencies in approach management and staff and the techniques can be improved upon by training of all persons concerned in the management of conflict in the system. We came up with the following conclusions; that management should ensure prompt and regular payment of wages, claims and allowances to staff, that there should be constant training through seminars and workshops of all those involved in conflict management with view to calculating in them the necessary skills for conflict management.
Table of Contents
Title page i
Approval page iv
Table of content viii
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Research Question 5
1.4 Purpose of the Study 5
1.5 Hypothesis 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 7
1.8 Limitations of the Study 8
1.9 Operationalization/Definition of terms 8
1.10 Organization of the Study 9
Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
2.1 The Concept of Conflict Management 11
2.1.1 What is Conflict? 12
2.1.2 Types of Conflict 14
2.1.3 Conflict Management 16
2.1.4 Peculiar Conflicts in Local Government System 17
2.1.5 Strategies for Conflict Resolution 19
2.2 Theoretical Framework 22
3.1 Research Design 24
3.2 Area of the Study 24
3.3 Population of the Study 24
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 24
3.5 Method of Data Collection 25
3.6 Reliability of the Instruments 26
3.7 Validity of the Instruments 26
3.8 Distribution and Retrieval of Instruments 26
3.9 Method of Data Analysis 26
Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 Data Presentation 28
4.2 Analysis of Research Questions 28
4.3 Testing of Hypothesis 37
4.4 Interpretation of Results 42
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary 43
5.2 Conclusion 44
5.3 Recommendation 45
Appendix I: Introduction Letter 48
Appendix II: Questionnaire 49
1.1 Background of Study
Conflict is endemic to all social life. It is an inevitable part of living because it is related to situations of scarce resources, division of functions, power relations and role-differentiation. Because of its ubiquity and pervasive nature, the concept has acquired a multitude of meanings and connotations presenting us with nothing short of a semantic jungle. Like other terms, conflict generates considerable ambivalence and leaves many scholars and administrators quite uncertain about its meaning and relevant and how best to cope with it.
Conflict refers to all kinds of antagonistic interactions. More specifically, it can be defined as a situation in which two or more parties have incompatible objectives and in which their perceptions and behavior are commensurate with that compatibility (C.F. Fink, journal of Conflict Resolution, 12 (4, 1968). This definition is purposely broad. It suggests that conflict is a social phenomenon that is found in personal, group or organizational interactions. As such it comprises several dimensions. Fink distinguishes between antagonistic- psychological relations and antagonistic behavior whereas Pondy observes that conflict is made up of antecedent conditions, affective conditions, cognitive conditions and behavioral conditions. We advance a conception of conflict which emphasizes its three, inter-relatives dimensions, namely: conflict situation (the basic incompatibility), conflict attitudes (range of psychological factors) and conflict behavior (set of related behavior).
Conflict in local government administration has become not only visible in recent times but volatile. It is almost an inevitable phenomenon within interpersonal relationships. It is widely recognized that opposing interest lie at the core of most conflicts; it is essentially a communication breakdown. It is a situation of disagreement between people who are supposed to get along to achieve a common goal. Conflict is an “unavoidable aspect of human interaction or an unavoidable concomitant of choices and decisions’’. The problems then are “not to court the frustrations of seeking to remove inevitability but of trying to keep conflicts in bound” (Zartman, 1991; 209). In short, conflict is not an anathema; it is the whole essence of governance.
Today varying degree of conflict are the major challenges facing local government in Anambra state. These conflicts could be interior conflicts such as; conflict between political officer holder of local government and the career officers, senior staffs and their subordinate as well as inter-departmental conflicts, for instance personnel management department and finance, education and works, agriculture and health. Hence, effective management and resolution in Nigerian local government is lacking. Conflict will always occur but a well-manage conflict will not degenerate for violence. Since violence will not erupt without conflict as antecedents. Therefore if conflicts are to be minimized in local governments, the need for effective conflict management cannot be over emphasized.
This research work examines the nature and major causes of this conflict within the personnel structure of local government service and proffers a resolving technique for efficient and effective administration function of local government in Anambra state. It has been observed that the inefficient nature of most local government in Anambra state emanated from lack of conflict management. The structural arrangement of local government in Anambra that empower political officer holder without adequate bureaucratic procedures being the executive arms of government causes a lot of conflict and disagreement between organizational structure of local government. This research will look into the conflict management in Anambra local government system; it will also aim at finding out possible causes of conflict in Anambra state local government system. The society is descriptive in design and will be carried out in Awka south local government. The sample for the study will focus on Awka south local government area to include with an average of 523 staff chosen using simple random selection. This study will employ questionnaire method in gathering its primary data. At the end of this research work, the study will reveal how important it is to understand that fighting cannot resolve conflict and that conflict is an instrument of mal-administration and inefficiency in public sector. Consequently, avoidance of factors such as Autocratic leadership style, value and goal different, denial/deprivation, non-compliance with agreement, competition for limited resources e.g.: promotion and appointment, responsibility issues, lack of co-operation/ understanding, misunderstanding, personality clashes among others will be an adequate resolution to conflict in Anambra state local government service.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
How to live together in a world of individual differences with interest and goal differences is the most critical challenges facing us today. The effectiveness or otherwise of the management of conflict is itself largely dependent on how well the causes of the conflict have been understood. Conflict refers to contradictions arising from differences in the interests, ideas, ideologies, orientations and precipitous tendencies of the people concerned. These contradictions are inherent at all levels of social and economic interactions of the human race. It may therefore exist at the individual, group, institutional, regional, national and international levels. Conflict is this, a pervasive phenomenon in human relationships and has been seen as the basic unit for understanding social existence. Conflict may have negative or positive effects. The resolution of conflicts helps to push society towards humanity. A conflict situation arises from a collision of interests. It is a situation where what one wants is not what the other wants and where both sides prefer to search for solutions, rather than giving in or breaking of contact. Conflict can be destructive but can also play a constructive role at the same personnel or organizational level. The important thing is to manage the conflict and not let it escalate out of control.
As initially discussed, the local governments as the third tier of government are always engulfed in form of conflict or the other. These conflicts emanated from many sources. Sometimes, they could be from the elected or appointed politicians of whose hands are placed the management of the socio-economic and political programs of rural populace.
As managers of the third tier of government, sometimes, some of their policies and decisions especially as they affect the workers could be controversial regulations. The managers are expected to have good management hostility. It is quite abysmal to note that what we have in the system in Anambra state as a whole is ineffective frame work for conflict management strategies due to the deplorable situation of nonchalant attitude attributed by local government functionaries. Consequently, the overall performance of the most local government in Anambra state is not only poor but is over the year shown steady declined.
Thus, this study addresses the debilitating issue of inadequate and ineffective framework for conflict resolution and management in local government system in Anambra state.
Also, the work address the erroneous impression held by many scholars that conflicts is a negative pathological condition characterized by lack of co-operation, hostility, struggles etc.
1.3 Research Questions
The questions are administered to the local government chairman or any other key major functionary in the administration of local government system in Awka South Local Government Area in Anambra State. These questions will serve as a major means of knowing the actual causes of conflicts and conflict management in local government system in Awka South local government area. They are as follows:
- What are the major sources of conflicts in the local government system in Awka south local government area?
- Does the management allow the workers union (NULGE) to take part in conflict settlement?
- What hinders conflict management in Awka South Local Government?
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to examine conflicts management in Awka South Local Government in Anambra State with a view to finding solution.
Other objectives/aims of this study are as follows:
- To examine the source of conflict in Awka South Local Government Area.
- To investigate whethermanagement allow the workers union (NULGE) to take part in conflict settlement
- To find out the hindrances of conflict management in Awka South Local Government
H0: There is no significance effect of the perceived source of conflict in Awka South Local Government Area.
H1: There is significance effect of the perceived source of conflict in Awka South Local Government Area.
H0: Management does not allow the Workers Union (NULGE) to take part in conflict settlement.
H1: Management allows the Workers Union (NULGE) to take part in conflict settlement.
H0: There is no significant hindrance to conflict management in Awka South Local Government Area.
H1: There is significant hindrance to conflict management in Awka South Local Government Area.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study has the potentiality of generating comprehensive and effective conflict management strategies capable of addressing the various conflict situations within the system. Consequently, it will now be possible for administrators and practitioners of the local government to learn to live with conflict, and with a view to making choices and seeking to transform creative way. In this way, the dwindling performance of most local government in Anambra State which hitherto has been associated with incessant occurrence of conflicts and its effective resolution would have been addressed.
Secondly, the study and its findings will contribute significantly to existing literature in the subject matter.
Finally, it will stimulate further research into conflict and its management not only in local government system but in other tiers of government and non-governmental establishments as well.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study, conflict management in the local government system in Anambra State covers the wide area of Awka South Local Government Council. It considered very important the performance of Awka South Local Government Council in conflict management and resolution.
The area says how to effectively manage conflicts in local government administration system in Anambra State.
The time frame of this research is 2015 -2017
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The following limitations are inherent in the study.
- Limited time – because of limited time given, I was able to work tirelessly to make up my research.
- Limited resources and other pressing problems like inadequate human and material resources and lack of reference books. Despite all this I was able to manage the resources and also gather information from different journals.
- The validity of the response was limited to the degree of objective and unbiased attitude responsible to the questions asked.
Despite all this problems I was persistent on the research work and was able to complete my findings despite all odds.
1.9 Definition of Terms
- Compromise – Is a strategy where the parties to the conflict give up something with a view to allowing each of them to win something.
- Integration – this is a strategy in which the parties seek a new solution to the conflict rather than staying within the confines of existing mutually exclusive alternative.
- Domination is a conflict resolution strategy in which one party wins and the other losses.
- Bedrock – solidly fundamental, basic or reliable, a strong idea, principle, or fact that supports something.
- Grass root: people at a local or low level rather than at the center or upper levels of an organization or movement.
- Autonomy: the quality or state of being self-governing, especially the right of self-governing
- Disputant: adversary, antagonist, arguer, contender, contestant, debater, opponent in a particular dispute.
1.10 Organization of the Study
The chapters of this project are arranged sequentially.
Chapter one ofthis work contains the Background of the Study, the Statement of the Problems (problem of conflict management), the Research Questions (questions that will serve as a major means of knowing the actual causes of conflict and conflict management in Awka South Local Government Area), Significance of the Study (the solution the research is going to provide towards ameliorating a practical problem of concern), Scope of the Study(the extent to which the intendedresearch will cover), Limitation of the Study (the problem the researcher encounter during the research), Definition of Terms (meaning of important terms or concepts as will be used in the study).
Chapter two of this contains Literature Review (an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and research) and Theoretical Framework (a group of related ideas that provides guidance to a research project).
Chapter three contains Research Design (a detailed outline of how an investigation will take place), Area of study, Population of the Study, Sample and Sampling Techniques, Methods of Data Collection, Instruments for Data Collection, Reliability of the Instruments, Liability of the Instruments, Distribution and Retrieval of the Instruments and Methods of Data Analysis sequentially.
Chapter four contains Data Presentation, Analysis of Research Questions, Testing of Hypotheses and Interpretations of results.
Chapter five contains the summary, conclusion and Recommendations that will improve the situation or solve the problem investigated in the study.
DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, eProjectTopics.com are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. eProjectTopics.com is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on eProjectTopics.com is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.