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Title Page




Table of Content


1.0     Introduction

1.1     Background

1.2     Aims / Objectives

1.3     Scope of Limitation

  • Definition of Terms


2.0     Literature Review

2.1     The Power Transformer

2.2     The Relay

2.3     Switches

2.4     Capacitors

2.5     Diode

2.6     Indicator Lights (Light Limiting Diode)

2.7     Power Supply

2.8     Resistor


3.0     Circuit Diagram

3.1     Block Diagram

3.3     Contactor Wiring Diagram

3.4     Diagram of the Casing


4.0     Testing and Evaluation

4.1     Testing

4.2     Evaluation

4.3     Trouble Shooting and Remedy

4.4     Maintainability


5.0     Conclusion

5.1     Reference



As the zeal for change over on public power supply and stand- by generator increases; Engineers have researched deeply into the different ways and methods of achieving power changeover both manual and automatic types.

It may no be considered as serious issue in some places where supply is up to 90% constant or where intermittent outage cause no great damage. However, places like the business confers, industrials and cold rooms need almost 100% power supply, and also hospitals and usefully clinics need constant power supply. So in this case, there is need to implement a stand by power supply in the event of power outage. The important thing is to make sure that an effective stand by power supply which is constant and reliable is provides to eliminate the problem of long time outage.

Before, this time, changeovers are operated manually, there by making it difficult for power continuity without a time wastage. This is because an operator must always be available ay any point in time. This manually operated changeover switch has two switch able positions. (Main and generator) an arm is also provided from where the operator can have access to the switching.

Here, the effectiveness, ie. The fastness of the switching any time power needs to be changed is slow, and largely depends on the operator, which means that the system will be in – effective whenever the operator is not available.

The second generator of changeover switch were made semi-automatic in which the main power supply directly powers the contactors.

This arrangement is made in such a way that if the main power supply fails, the contactor will drop, leaving the supply to the generator position. The effectiveness of the system will how depend on the operator to start the generator on time.

The main problem suffered by the manual and semi automatic system is that the operator must have to be continuously be on duty for it to be very effective. This depends on fully closed loop system to operate.

With more research by the scientists and engineers to improve on the earlier ones, the present day technology has made it possible for the changeover switch to be more effective and fast with less labour more improvement has been made in terms of number of designs, using the closed loop system at need back control some also use comparators, logic circuits and electronics timers to achieve the task.

The design of this project is in such a way that control or switching is done without any noticeable sign. It uses a combination of compotators digital switches (relays) and electromagnetic switches o achieve a very fast and effective changeover in the case of power failure. This type of switch does depend on any operator to function well.



The background to this project work is traced to the tense demand of the population and industries, residential hones, and many more demand for change of power supply switch for effective and continuity of power supply without a notice interruption or delay in such process to any alternative supply if the main supply goes off.

Earlier to this time, such process is manually operated or not in used at all,. This manually type which is always strenuous and time delayed was a little bit useful but not to a satisfactorily level. More level and experiences are always required to meet up with the time factor and effectiveness required of this process of change over. These expenses and labour could not be afforded by some individual and industries that needed to practice this change over.

Regard to this solutions were suggested to improve the process, so the idea of change or transforming the manual operated to automatic was discovered and engineers went into automatic change over switch. But he demand for this equipment was must much that something must be done to meet up with increasing demand. But this increase in demand topples the decrease in supply due to the cost of securing his equipment. The students went into this project to find out how mass production could reduce the increase in demand o meet up with the demand. They now decide to go further single handedly produce this work and see how far it can be done without the help of industrial machine.


After the approval, I went for market survey and evaluation of the components, after a study of the circuit diagram. The rating of the equipment was also considered. A cot of considerations were made based in the fluctuating nature and inconsistency of my main supply source.  The cost of procuring the system was put together and found out that it is less cost, and easy in operation. The without an input or extra labour.

With all these considerations and studies we decided to put together this project.



The primary aim and objective of this project work among other things are:-

  1. To see how the problems of power change over can be solved with less capital and less labour.
  2. To make sure that an average person can reach to the equipment by the evaluation of the cost of production of this project.
  3. To check the effectiveness of this work and how fast it can wok without risk or extra labour or shock to personnel’s.

It is also aimed at improving the available of power supply at any point in time with this equipment, due to its automatic nature.

This is because the automatic nature of this project makes it unnoticeable at the out put or at the load.


This equipment, when used will solve the problem of power outage suffered or delayed in change over suffered by many industries and business centers where power failure are greatly felt, and can cost severally, because of power failure, especially in business centers. This work therefore remedies these problems but can be regrettable.



The scope or range of this project work, is as wide as the construction excepted to have 2.5KVA as the rating. This means that it is capable to with-standing any input of the range from any source especially generator sets and can give an output of 220 – 230 volts.

With this rating of 2.5KVA and a voltage of 230 volt, this work can stand any load.

The limitation is with prescribed output / input range. In order words any increase in the input could cause some damage to the components.

Again a circuit should be properly used.




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