The focus of this project was the development of an ICU/Rehabilitation adjustable bed for the hospital and home environment. The project was initiated with the desire to develop an innovative, effective and inexpensive mechanism that would require an electrical supply. The design was performed systematically using various methods, procedures, techniques and materials to aid the process. One of the method used is carpentry, which was used to make the bed framework and the adjustable floor, which is 3 feet wide and 6 feet long and 28 inch (backrest), 1 feet (buttocks section), 14 inch (thigh section) and 19 inch (legrest section). Welding was used to make the arm, strut, crossbar and pivot and also screwing belts were used to hold the different parts together. The materials used for this project are: an electrical linear actuator, made from locally sourced materials (jack, steel pipes and 12 volt DC motor), wood, screws, bolts and nuts, foam, mattress, remote control, 24 volt adapter, nails and hinges. A total cost of 75,000 naira was used for the overall design and construction process. The final design uses an electrical linear actuator made from locally sourced materials to move the top adjustable sections. A six bar linkage mechanism delivers a combined back and head adjustment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vi-viii
List of Figures ix
List of Tables x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1-3
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3-4
1.3 Objectives/purpose of the Study 4
1.4 Significance of the Study 4-5
1.5 Scope or Delimitation of the Study 5
1.6 Operational Definition of Terms 5-6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 History of Rehabilitation/Intensive Care Bed 7-11
2.2 Modern Features of ICU/Rehabilitation Beds 12-17
2.3 Intensive Care Unit (ICU) 17-27
2.4. A modern hospital bed 27-28
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1 Materials 29-30
3.2 Method 31-34
3.3 Circuit Diagram 34-37
3.4 Cost Analysis 37
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1. Technical Specifications 39
4.2. Principle of Operation 39-40
4.3. Safety Instructions 41-43
4.4. Maintenance 43-44
4.5. Troubleshooting 45
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1. Conclusion 46
5.2. Recommendation 46-47
APPENDIX I 50
APPENDIX II 51
- Background of the study
An intensive care unit (ICU) is a special department of the hospital of health facility that provides intensive treatment medicine (Moris, 2000).
Intensive care unit cater to patient with severe and life threatening illness and injuries which require constant, close monitoring and support from specialize equipment and medications in order to ensure normal bodily functions they are staffed by highly trained doctors and nurses who specialize in caring for initial ill patients. ICU is also distinguished from normal hospital ward by a higher staff to patient ratio and access to advanced medical resources and equipment that is not routing available elsewhere. Patient may be transferred directing to an intensive care unit from an emergency department if revere of from a ward if they rapidly deteriorates of immediately after surgery if the surgery is very intensive and the patient is at high risk of complication (Smith, 2013).
One of the major equipment found in the ICU is the ICU, rehabilitation bed which is used for recovery, relaxation, sleep and rehabilitation most modern bed consist of a soft cushioned matures resting either on a solid basic often wood states or a spring base. Mainly beds include a box spring inner spring base, a large mattress. Sizes box containing wood and spring that proved additional support and suspension for the mattress (Farlex, 2012).
Beds are available in many sizes ranging from infant size, child or adult size, queen and kings size bed designed for two adult. Most bed are single mattresses on a fixed frame. There are other varieties such as the murphy bed, which folds out of a soft and the bunk bed, which provides two mattress on two tiers, temporary bed contain neither a padded mattress nor a bed train, such as the hammock and they are considered on of the most comfortable place to rest while swaying side to side. Many bed have a head board comforter, hand board only bed may incorporate a “dust ruffle” bed frame. To support the head, a pillion made of a soft padded materials is usually placed on the top of the mattress some form of covering blanket is often used to insulate the sleeper, often bed sheet a quiet of a duvet collectively referred it as bedding. Bedding is the removable non future position of a bed which enable these component to be washed or carried out certain standard are certain standard are necessary in other not to ad or inflict more paint to the patient that is already in paint , these bed have special feature both for the comfort and the well being of the patient and for the university of health care workers common feature include adjustable height for the entire bed the head and the feet adjustable side fail and electronic button and manual hand tact to operate both the bed and other heat by electronic device (William, 2011).
ICU bed and other similar type of bed are used not only in the hospital but in other health care facilities and home settings such as nursing home, assisted living facilities out patient’s clinic and in home health care. ICU bed with adjustable side first appeared in England sometime between 1815 and 1874 by Willest Dew attach of the department of surgery at Indiana university of medicine in the early 20th century this type of bed is sometime referred it as the gatch bed (Bedpan, 1945).
In 1874 the mattress company Andrew Wilest and son, Cincinnati, Ohio registered a patient for a types of mattress frame with a hinted head that could be elevated a predecessor of the modern day hospital or ICU bed. Andrew Wilest the ICU bed can be operated moronically or automatically except the wheel.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The department of Biomedical Engineering is a new department in Rivers State College of Health that is meant to train biomedical technicians. The ICU/rehabilitation adjustable bed is one of the equipment under biomedical engineering. This equipment is not available in the biomedical workshop. Potential technicians under the department of BET are denied practical knowledge of the working principles of this machine. Hence the construction of this equipment will be a plus to this department.
1.3 Objective/purpose of the study
The objectives/aims of the study and study below
- To observe the work and benefit of a locally mode adjustable bed on both clinical and home setting.
- To design a rehabilitation bed with structural strength to with stand variable weights.
- To design and fabricate a rehabilitation bed having an adjustable mechanism using local source material.
1.4 Significance of the study
The design and fabrication of an intensive care unit/ rehabilitation bed using locally source a material the following relevance
- To make doctors, government officials and non government officials aware of the possible design and rehabilitation bed locally
- To assist rehabilitation and intensive care therapy for convalescing patients
- It will serve as new additional equipment to the biomedical engineering department of rivers tech.
- To serve as a model for student who may work on this topic
1.5 Scope and limitation of the study
The study is limited and cover just the design and fabrication of an intensive care unit/ rehabilitation bed using locally of wooden (Furniture) electrical electronics and mechanical materials within the confined of Port Harcourt Rivers State Nigeria
1.6 Definition of terms
ICU: This is a designated area of a hospital of a hospital facility that is dedicated to the care of patients who are seriously ill patient recovering unmediated and continues attention
Bed: This is a place of furniture for refilling and sleeping, typically consisting of a flat, rectangular frames and a mattress resting on spring
Rehabilitation: This is the act of restating someone to health or normal life through training and therapy after imprisonment addition of illness.
Hospital: A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment, the medical facilities smaller that a hospital is generally called a clinic.
Patient: This is a sick in needed especially when awaiting of under the care and treatment of a physicians or surgery the hospital is exulted to handle 500 patients.
Material: This is a substance or substances of which a thing made or composed anything that services as crude or raw mater to be used or developed.
Wood: is an organic material a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in matrices of lignum that resists compression.
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