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Title page                                                                                 i

Certification                                                                             ii

Dedication                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                   iv

Table of contents                                                                      viii

Abstract                                                                                  ix

Chapter one

1.0   Introduction                                                                    1

1.1   Background of study                                                       4

1.2    Aims and objectives                                                         4

1.3   Problem statement                                                           5

1.4   Purpose of work                                                               5

1.5   Scope of work                                                                  5

1.6    Limitations                                                                      6

Chapter two

2.0   Literature review                                                              19

Chapter three

3.0   Methodology                                                                    20

3.1   Project design                                                                   20

3.2   Hardware implementation                                                22

3.2.1 Power supply                                                                   23

3.2.2 Fingerprint/voting unit                                                   25

3.2.3 Database unit                                                                  26

3.2.4 Controlled unit                                                                27

3.2.5 Display unit                                                                    27

3.3 The software design                                                            28

3.4 Working principle                                                               30

3.10 System Development Flow chart                                       31


Chapter four

4.0     Implementation and result                                             33

4.1     Architecture of the purposed system                               34

4.1.1   Micro controller (AT89C52)                                            41

4.1.2   Fingerprint sensor (R305)                                              44

4.1.3   Resistor                                                                         45

4.1.4   Capacitor                                                                      47

4.1.5   Diode                                                                            49

4.1.6   Transformer                                                                  50

4.1.7   Max 232                                                                                52

4.1.8   Crystal oscillator                                                           53

4.1.9   IC socket                                                                       54

4.2     Testing                                                                           54

4.2.1   Hardware testing                                                           55

4.2.2   Source code testing and compiling                                 55

4.2.3   Overall system testing                                                   56

4.3     Result                                                                            56

4.4    Bill of Electronic Components and Evaluation                 57

4.4     Problems encountered                                                    58

Chapter five

5.0   Conclusion                                                                      59

5.1   Recommendation                                                            59

        References                                                                        60























The objective of voting is to allow voters to exercise their right to express their choices regarding specific issues; pieces of legislation, citizen initiatives, constitutional amendments, and to choose their government and political representatives. It has always been an onerous task for the election commission to conduct free and fair polls in our country. A lot of money has been spent on this to make sure that the elections are rampage free. But, now- a -days it has become very usual for some forces to indulge in rigging which may eventually lead to a result contrary to the actual mandate given by the people. In order to provide inexpensive solutions to the above, this project will be implemented with biometric system i.e. finger print scanning. This is used to ensure the security in voting and to avoid fake and repeated voting etc. It also enhances the accuracy and speed of the process. The system uses thumb impression for voter identification as we know that the thumb impression of every human being has a unique pattern. Thus it would have an edge over the present day voting systems. The purpose of such system is to ensure that the voting rights are accessed only by a legitimate user and no one else. During elections, the thumb impression of a voter is entered as input to the system. This is then compared with the available records in the database. If the particular pattern matches with anyone in the available record, access to cast a vote is granted. But in case the pattern doesn’t match with the records of the database or in case of repetition, access to cast a vote is denied or the vote gets rejected. The result is instantaneous and counting is done. The overall cost for conducting elections gets reduced and so does the maintenance cost of the systems.







Voting is a crucial device to reveal the opinion of a group on an issue that is under consideration. Voting is applicable in; student body elections, shareholder meetings, and the passing of bills in parliament, etc. Perhaps the most important, influential, publicized, and widespread use of voting is its use in national elections.

Conventionally, the voting process is divided into four categories:

  • Accreditation: In this portion, every voter comes with his/her voter identification card (ID) to the center. The presiding officer verifies the ID of the voter by matching it with the voter list comprising of the details of the voter. After accreditation, the officer provides a ballot paper to the voter and marks his/her finger with a permanent marker.


  • Voting: After getting the ballot paper, the voter goes into a covered booth which is placed in a corner of the room, marks the Symbol of the candidate of interest on the ballot, folds it and drops it in the ballot box.
  • Vote Counting: When the voting period ends, the presiding officer collects all the ballot boxes of the center and starts counting. While counting, it is very important to verify the proper votes. Only the presiding officer and Election commission nominated authorized members are eligible for this process.
  • Result: After finishing counting, the presiding officer announces the result and declares the winner of that particular center.

Conventional voting system requires a long period of time and lots of stationeries. It is also vulnerable to illegal vote casting. It is a manual system and there is always risk of manual errors during the counting. All the above mentioned problems make Electronic Fingerprint Voting Machine a necessity in modern democratic world.

Compared to its traditional paper-based counterpart, electronic voting using fingerprint is considered to benefits. These benefits include better accuracy – by eliminating the negative factor of human error, better coverage for remote locations, increased speed for tally computation, lower operational cost through automated means, and the convenience of voting from any accredited location closest to the voter.


In finger print recognition, the electronic methods of recording and recognizing an individual finger print, advanced substantially during the last decade of the 21th century. Today, identification can be achieved in a few seconds with reasonable accuracy. As a result, the use of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) that record, store, search, match and identify finger prints is rapidly expanding. AFIS can be integrated with a microcontroller and other peripherals to form an embedded system which is a comprehensive electronic voting machine with fingerprint print identification system.


In this project work, the design and construction of a microcontroller based finger print voting machine, we shall be designing a voting machine that scans the finger print of registered voters and accredits them. Secondly during voting, it’ll allow any voter to select their political party with a button, to then vote with their finger prints, increments the vote if the voter is accredited, sounds an alarm if the voter is not legible, and deactivates the voter after voting so that they cannot vote again. Finally, the votes are then collated and counted on the visual basic software on the PC.


The main aim of this project: design and construct a microcontroller based finger print voting machine which will;

  • Ease up the electoral process by speeding up accreditation, results counting and collation at various polling booths.
  • Accredit a voter based on their finger prints and available database.
  • Allow each voter to vote only one candidate once, and deny them if they proceed to other polling booth for same process.
  • Use a finger print sensor to capture the unique finger print of voters.



The conventional voting process could not account for accurate vote count, a quicker accreditation process, and multiple votes. This work is targeted with speed, a finger print validation on accreditation and voting, single voter-single vote mechanism.


The main purpose of this work is to design and construct a system that can easily and efficiently replace the conventional voting system with additional features that eases up the electoral process and enhances a more accurate results collation.


This work assumes the presence of voter’s database already. It accredits voters based on the information in the database, and then it allows for a single vote process, which saves vote in its memory and uses visual basic to manage votes.





Since the Microcontroller Based Electronic Finger Print Voting Machine is designed solely for voting and it works with the aid of fingerprint scanners. It will be very difficult, if not impossible for deformed individuals (Any form of injury to the fingers) to make use of this device.


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