Page Length: 72

Size: 2028 KB

Format: PDF & Word


The security condition in the world today has saddened the hearts of many. In recent time,
there are frequent cases of armed robbery, kidnapping and breaking and entry into people’s
home and this has led to the loss of properties worth millions if not billions of Naira. Hence,
the needs arose to design and implement a security door that could restrict the entry of an
unauthorised door user. This design architecture utilises the microcontroller-based control
and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, with the objective of programming
the microcontroller to monitor the hardware in sliding door. The system consists of a
microcontroller Atmega-32 which was programmed using “Bloodshed Dev C++ 5.9
compiler” to send signals to the multiplexers when the tag is closer to the RFID reader. The
multiplexers consist of integrated circuit which prompts for a display of the identity of the
card user in the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The LCD displays the status of the card. The
result shows that, upon validation of the tag, the LCD displays a welcome note and access
will be granted, otherwise no access, giving the user two more chances to scan the correct
tag, before final denial of access and alarm to notify the public of an intruder.
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 3
1.4 Scope of the Study 4
1.5 Research Methods 4
1.6 Significance of the study 5
1.7 Arrangement of the Thesis 5
2.1 Radio Frequency Identification Technology 7
2.2 Tags 8
2.2.1 1-Bit Transponder 8
2.2.2 Glass Housing Tag 9
2.2.3 Labels Tag 9
2.2.4 Smart Tags 9
2.2.5 Sensor Tags 10
2.2.6 Chip Less Tags 10
2.2.7 Encrypted Tags 10
2.3 Advance Door Locking System Using Palmtop 11
2.4 C++ Programming 11
2.5 The Analysis of Intelligent Campus Security System 12
2.6 The Design of PC Wireless Door Security System. 13
2.7 State of the Art in Security Door System 14
3.1 Design Methods 17
3.2 Design Analysis 18
3.2.1 Design of the Power Supply System Unit 18
3.2.2 Design of the Locking System Circuitry 21
3.2.3 Design of the Alarm Circuit 22
3.2.4 The Design of Voltage Input to the Microcontroller. 23
3.2.5 The Liquid Crystal Display Circuitry 24
3.3 Components/Materials Used 24
3.4. The Design of the Control System 25
3.4.1 Pin Assignment for Atmega 32 Microcontroller 28
3.5 The RFID-Based Security Door Design Set Up 29
4.1 Construction 32
4.2 Results and Discussion 41
4.2.1 Power Supply Test 43
4.2.2 RFID Reader Test 44
4.3 Findings 44
5.1 Conclusion 46
5.2 Recommendation 47
APPENDIX A: The C++ Program of control system 51
APPENDIX B: Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation 62
AC Alternating Current
AM Amplitude Modulation
ASK Amplitude Shift Keying
BAP Battery Assisted Passive
BJT Bipolar Junction Transistor
CW Continuous Wave
DC Direct Current
EAS Electronic Surveillance System
EPC Electronic Product Code
EPROM Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
FET Field Effect transistor
FM Frequency Modulation
FRAM Ferro Random Access Memory
FSK Frequency Shift Keying
HF High Frequency
I/O Input/Output
IC Integrated Circuit
IDE Integrated Development Environment
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LF Low Frequency
PC Personal Computer
PDA Personal Digital Assistants
PDM Pulse Duration Modulation
PM Phase Modulation
PPM Pulse Position Modulation
PSK Phase Shift Keying
RAM Random Access Memory
RF Radio Frequency
RFID Radio Frequency Identification
RO Read Only
RW Read Write
UHF Ultra High Frequency
VBE Emitter Base Voltage
VDC Direct Current Voltage
WORM Write Once Read Many
Table 3.1 ATmega16 Input/output Pin Assignment 30
Table 4.1 Main characteristics of measuring instrument used in this study 44
Table 4.2 Comparison of Theoretical and Experimental Values 44
Table 4.3 Testing Rate 45
Figure 2.1 System Design Architecture 13
Figure 2.2 Components of RFID System 14
Figure 3.1 Architecture of the proposed RFID-based security system 18
Figure 3.2 Design of Power Supply Unit 19
Figure 3.3 The Electromechanical Locking System 22
Figure 3.4 The Alarm Circuit 23
Figure 3.5 Voltage Input to Microcontroller 24
Figure 3.6 The Display Unit 25
Figure 3.7 The System Main Flow Chart 27-28
Figure 3.8 Schematic of the RFID Security Design Setup 31
Plate 4.1 Bread boarding of the Circuit 34
Plate 4.2 Powering the Bread boarding Circuit 35
Plate 4.3 Mounting the Components on the Vero board 36
Plate 4.4 Placing the Soldered Components in Casing 37
Plate 4.5 Testing the Circuit with Instrument 38
Plate 4.6 Looping all the Circuit Terminals 39
Plate 4.7 Connecting the Circuit with the Prototype 40
Plate 4.8 The Front View of the Prototype 41
Plate 4.9 The Back View of the Prototype 41
Plate 4.10 Placing the Tag Close to the RFID Reader 42
Plate 4.11 The Door Opened 43
Plate 4.12 The Door Closes After 5sec 43
1.1 Background to the Study
The security condition today leaves a lot to be desired. The frequent cases of armed robbery,
kidnapping and breaking and entry into people’s home have caused the loss of properties
worth billions of Naira (Ralph, 2014). Some of these incidents occurred in homes or a
protected compound, and the attacks happened despite the security doors that were made to
stop intruders. Individuals are becoming more aware of the dangers associated with relying on
keys or padlocks to provide security to unauthorised areas of the apartments (Markus, 2000).
Criminals can forge keys or make master keys that could be used to gain access to
unauthorised areas (rooms or offices) and people are currently looking for more effective
methods to protect their homes and building, premises (Mohd, 2008). To eliminate the
drawbacks of using the traditional keys and padlocks, the use of password in doors and gates
mechanism evolved. Unfortunately, users cannot always remember the sort of password,
partly due to fundamental human limitations; hence, most users attempt to write the password,
which can be misplaced or seen by a third party. Other users tend to choose easy to remember
passwords that could be easily guessed. These shortcomings necessitate the development of a
better authentication method.
The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology ensures no contact link between tag
and reader or worried about dirty surroundings that may oppose other auto identification
technologies like bar codes. Radio frequency identification systems are mostly categorised on
the ground frequency ranges. The often used radio frequency identification kits include low
frequency (30-500 kHz), medium frequency (900 kHz- 1500 MHz) and high frequency
(2.4GHz -2.5GHz). Basically, a radio frequency identification unit is made-up of antenna
(coil), then a transceiver and transponder (RFID tag) electronically programmed with unique
The RFID tag consists of a small radio frequency transmitter, which sends encoded messages
to interrogate the radio frequency tag, and then the receiver who receives the radio signal
gives output with its identification information. The two commonly used categories of tags are
the passive and the active tags. Nevertheless, the passive tags are not heavy and less expensive
when compared to the active tags. The tag’s information is stored electronically and can be
installed in consumer products and could still be implanted in animals for identification. Few
numbers of tags can be read from distance, meters away and even beyond line of sight from
the reader. Some tags don’t use battery, but use the signal energy sent by the reader as the
source of energy.
This study proposes the design and implementation of a two-factor authentication security
system, which utilises the RFID tag and pin code for authentication. The proposed design
when implemented could overcome the drawbacks of the single secret authentication
approach for securing lives and properties. In addition, the system can provide better security
than other systems due to the application of the radio frequency identification system design,
which include a way of distinguishing the various tags that may be within the range of the
RFID reader.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In recent times, the safety of lives has become an important issue for most if not all the people
especially in the cities, because some persons have tendencies to steal other people’s
properties or can endanger the safety of lives in the homes or offices. So, to ensure the safety
of lives and properties many persons use padlocks or alarm system. Individuals are becoming
more aware of the dangers associated with relying on keys or padlocks to provide security to
unauthorised areas of their apartments (Markus, 2000). Fraudsters/criminals can forge keys or
make master keys that can be used to break into such rooms or offices (Mohd, 2008). To
eliminate the drawbacks of using the traditional keys and padlocks, different security systems
have been developed (Okundamiya, 2007; Gyanendra, 2010; Kuei-Mei, 2012).
Smart power (2016) applied RFID control system to an Electro Magnetic Lock system to
enhance its security performance, and the door access control system is another security
system, which allows selective entry of people using the RFID access control card, digital
keypad or remote control. The drawback of this design is that uninterrupted power is required
for its efficiency.
The need for a more effective method to protect homes and offices has motivated the use of
alarm system. Several types of alarm systems, which utilize different sensors, have been
discussed in the literature (Khaing, 2015). However, the sensor system is not effective at all
times. The reason is that it could sense any types of signals in the environment and the
difference could be analysed, thereby giving false signal in line with the pre-arranged value.
This can be confusing especially when it has to do with identifying a particular signal (Aruna,
This study proposes the design and implementation of a two-factor authentication security
system, which utilises the RFID tag and pin code for authentication. The proposed design
when implemented can overcome the drawbacks of the single secret authentication approach
for securing lives and properties. In addition, the system can provide better security than other
systems due to the application of the Radio Frequency Identification model design system,
which include method of selecting various tags that may be around the RFID reader by the use
of a microcontroller that could be programmed to enforce compliance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The overall aim of this study is to design and implement an RFID-based security system with
efficient control system facilities that can secure the entrance to a house.
The specific objectives of this study are to:
(a) design an RFID-based security system that uses two-factor authentication to
provide security control to restricted areas;
(b) construct a prototype of the designed RFID-based security to grant access only to
the authorised users based on the control list provided to the system; and
(c) implement and evaluate the performance of the developed prototype system.
1.4 Scope of the Study
The RFID-based security system described in this study is limited to the medium frequency
range. The system is designed to operate at 13.56MHz and can be powered from a 12V DC. In
addition, the door lock controlled by a motor that is driven by the Alf Vegards RISC processor
(AVR) Atmega 32 microcontrollers. The system with tag reading speed between 0.5 ~ 2.0
second and the storage capacity of 1 – 50 RFID tags information are considered in this study.
1.5 Research Methods
The methods proposed to achieve the set objectives in this study are as follows:
(a) design of a two-factor (RFID tag and pin code) authentication system based on
RFID technology to eliminate the access of unauthorised personnel into private
(b) construction of an automated door/access path using microcontroller design, this
involves the application of automated system that is incorporated into these
doors/gates for efficient and optimum performance. The microcontroller (which is
programmable) has series of instruction that could be fed into it, this helped it to
accomplish most intelligent task like the human brain. These include detection of
card, identification of password, displaying ―access granted, ―access denied and
the opening and the closing of the door using smart card. An electromagnetic relay
was designed to control the opening and closing of the door/gate which can be
moved to and fro by a synchronous motor (DC); and
(c) the microcontroller was programmed using C++ to enforce compliance of the
system and the performance of the developed system was determined
experimentally, by comparing the measured values with standard values.
1.6 Significance of the study
The recent frequent occurrence of arm robbery, kidnapping and breaking and entry into
people’s home has created tension in the lives of many people and because of these problems
many people sleep with one eye open, and when these people are away from home, their mind
are not at rest because of personal belongings at home that can be stolen by an intruder.
Therefore, a secure environment is very essential especially to people with busy lifestyle.
Instead of worrying about the security of their homes, people can now concentrate better on
more important things.
Similarly, keeping several keys for several locks in ones homes/offices can be cumbersome
and losing a key will give the person a hard time to enter the house. Other people finding the
key may also bring fear to the family since that person has the access to the house. The
security door lock does not only discourage would-be burglars in continuing their act, but it
also gives peace of mind to the homeowners and leaves a worry-free secure home.
1.7 Arrangement of the Thesis
Chapter 1 of this thesis discusses the background to the study, statement of the problem, the
objectives, overview of research methods and the significance of the study. Chapter 2 gives a
thorough review of relevant literature applied to the design of security door system and the
RFID technology and their applications. Chapter 3 describes the design methods, analysis and
the experimental set-up of the security door system. Chapter 4 discusses the construction,
testing and results while Chapter 5 gives the conclusion and recommendation of the study.
Appendix A gives the software programme written using C++. Appendix B contains the Bill
of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation


DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Administrator (Online)
Hello and welcome. I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.