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Discipline is inevitable in any organisation  as a way of ensuring  attainment of efficiency in service delivery. The Civil Service Rules prescribe procedures for disciplining erring Civil Servants. However, over the years there had been cases of breach  in the disciplinary process of erring Civil Servants resulting in several law suits  against the government and its agencies. It had been observed that the method of disciplining staff  may have some effect later on their level of productivity, as well as on their colleagues. The study therefore, investigated  Disciplinary Procedure (DP)  and  Job Performance (JP)  among Civil Servants in  Lagos and Ondo States  between 2005 and 2015.

Survey design was adopted for the study. The population comprised of civil servants in the Ministry of Establishment and Training, Public Service Office and the Civil Service Commission. Stratified random sampling technique was used in the selection of respondents from the two states according to their cadres and grade levels. A validated questionnaire was employed to measure Statutory Disciplinary Procedure (SDP) measured on 4-point scale (α=0.75); Investigation of Disciplinary Cases  (IDC) measured on 6 point scale (α=0.84); Special Training for Personnel Handling Disciplinary Cases (STPHDC) on 5- point scale (α=0.89); Discrimination and Bias Judgement of Cases (DBJC) on 6-point scale (α=0.87); Awareness of Disciplinary Procedural Cases (ADPC) on 5-point scale (α=0.89); Job Performance of Civil Servant within the service (JP) on 4-point scale (α=0.83) in both states. A total of 487 copies of the questionnaire were administered with a response rate of 85.6%. In addition, in-depth interview was conducted with 6 Directors, two each from the selected ministries. Data collected with the questionnaire were analysed using descriptive statistics. The hypotheses were tested, using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) at 5% level of significance. The qualitative data from the interview were transcribed and content-analysed.

Findings revealed that there were SDP in the civil service in both states but were not adhere to. Also IDC was significantly associated with JP (r=0.489, p<0.05). there was a positive relationship between STPHDC & JP of civil servant in the states under investigation              (r = 0.529, P< 0.05 ).The study also find that there was a negative relationship between  DBJC & JP of civil servant in Lagos and Ondo state (r = 0.318, p< 0.05).

The study concluded that proper investigation of disciplinary cases increased job performance of Civil Servants in both states as officers were confident of being fairly heard. Also, cases of discrimination and biased judgements were prominent in these states thus having a negative effect on job performance of Civil Servants. Consequently, the study recommended that the Civil Service Commissions should ensure adherence to stipulated disciplinary procedures in  disciplining  erring Civil Servants in the two states. Those who abuse the disciplinary process  should face stiffer sanctions.

Keywords:     Disciplinary Procedure, Job Performance, Civil Servant, Investigation,

Lagos and Ondo


Word Count : 460




Content                                                                                                                       Page

Title Page                                                                                                                      i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                     iv

Abstract                                                                                                                       vi

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vii

List of Tables                                                                                                              xi

List of Figures                                                                                                             xii

List of Appendices                                                                                                     xiii


1.1 Background to the Study                                                                                     1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                                     3

1.3 Objective of the Study                                                                                         4

1.4 Research Questions                                                                                               4

1.5 Hypotheses                                                                                                           5

1.6 Justification for the Study                                                                                                5

1.7 Scope of the Study                                                                                               6

1.8 Operationalization of Variables                                                                            6

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms                                                                           7

1.10 Organisation of Work                                                                                         8


2.1 The Civil Service                                                                                                   10

2.2 Indiscipline in the Civil Service                                                                            15

2.2.1 Selected Cases of Indiscipline that Violated Laid Down Procedure

in Nigeria                                                                                                19

2.2.2 Misconduct in Civil Services in Nigeria                                                21

2.2.3 Reasons for Indiscipline in Civil Servant                                                          22 Economic Factors                                                                                           22 Social-cultural Factors                                                                        23 Social- political Factors                                                                                   24

Content                                                                                                                       Page Management Factor                                                                                        24 Lack of Motivation                                                                                         25

2.3 Disciplinary Procedure in the Civil Service                                                          26

2.3.1 Traditional Approach: Progressive Approach                                                    26 Progressive Disciplinary Procedure                                                                30

2.3.2 Modern Approach: Corrective Approach                                                          34

2.3.3 New Approach (Non-Punitive Discipline Method)                                           36

2.3.4 Categories of Disciplinary Process and Job Performance                                  39

2.4. Job Performance in the Civil Service                                                                   42

2.4.1 Performance Improvement Strategies: The expected role of supervisor

and Employee                                                                                                     45 Training and Development                                                                             46 Organization Development                                                                             46 Job Involvement, Job Enrichment and Reengineering                                   46 Effective Feedback                                                                                         47 Management Development                                                                             47 Removal                                                                                                          47 Implementation of the solution                                                                       48

2.4.2 Job Performance, Management, and Progressive Discipline                             48 Behavior Problems                                                                                          49 Performance Problems                                                                                    49

2.4.3 Developing and Implementing a Performance Improvement Plan (PIP)          52

2.4.4 Relationship between Employee training/motivation on the Job

Performance                                                                                                        53

2.4.5 Relationship between Employee Job Performance and Feedback                    54

2.4.6 The Relationship between Fair Hearing and Job Performance                          57

2.5 The Relationship between Discipline and Employee Job Performance                61

2.6 Managing and Measuring Performance in the Civil Service                                 63

2.6.1 Gross outcome                                                                                                   66

2.6.2 Net outputs                                                                                                        66

2.7 Challenges of Performance Measurement in the Civil Service                             67

2.8 Discipline in the Civil Service                                                                               69

Content                                                                                                                       Page

2.9 Ethical and Unethical Issue in Civil Service                                                         71

2.10 Gaps in Literature                                                                                               80

2.11 Theoretical Framework                                                                                       80

2.11.1 Bureaucratic Theory                                                                                         80

2.11.2 The Theory of “Just Cause” in Employee Disciplinary Cases             83



3.0 Introduction                                                                                                          89

3.1 The Historical Background of Civil Service in Nigeria                                        89

3.2. Historical Background of Lagos State                                                                92

3.2.1 Evolution of Civil Service in Lagos State                                                         94

3.3. Historical Background of Ondo State                                                                 96

3.3.1 Evolution of Civil Service in Ondo State                                                          97

3.4 Civil Service Reform in Nigeria                                                                            98


4.1 Research Design                                                                                                   103

4.2 Population                                                                                                             103

4.3 Sample size and sampling Technique                                                                    104

4.4 Method of Data Collection                                                                                   106

4.5 Sources of Data                                                                                                    106

4.6 Instrument for Data Collection                                                                             106

4.7 Validity of the Instrument                                                                                                107

4.8 Reliability Of Instrument                                                                                      107

4.9 Method of Data Analysis                                                                                     108



5.0 Introduction                                                                                                          109

5.1 Analysis of Respondents’ Demographic Data                                                      111

5.2 Analysis of Research Questions                                                                           116

5.3 Hypotheses Testing                                                                                               129

5.4 Qualitative Data Analysis (Analysis of the In-Depth Interview)                         133

Content                                                                                                                       Page

5.5 Discussion of Findings                                                                                         136

5.5.1 Statutory actions within the civil service                                                           136

5.5.2 Investigation of cases on disciplinary procedure within the civil service          137

5.5.3. Adequate training of civil service personnel of disciplinary procedure            138

5.5.4 Discrimination and biased judgement in disciplinary procedure                       139

5.5.5 Job performance within the civil service                                                            140

5.5.6 Awareness of Disciplinary Procedure and Job Performance                             141



6.0 Introduction                                                                                                          143

6.1 Summary                                                                                                               143

6.2 Conclusion                                                                                                            145

6.3 Recommendations                                                                                                146

6.4 Contributions to Knowledge                                                                                147

6.5 Suggestion for Further Studies                                                                             147

References                                                                                                                  148

Appendices                                                                                                                 165

















Table                                                                                                                               Page

1          Lagos State Staff Strength as at July 2014                                                             103

2          Ondo State Staff Strength as at July, 2014                                                          104

3          Reliability Test Table                                                                                            107

5.1       Distribution of Respondents by State and Numbers of Questionnaire                109

5:2       Distribution of Respondents by Gender                                                               111

5:3       Distribution of Respondent by Marital Status                                                      112

5.4       Distribution of the Respondents by Highest Qualification                                 113

5:5       Distribution of the Respondents by Designation                                                114

5:6       Distribution of the Respondents by Years of Service in Percentages                 115

5:7       Statutory Disciplinary Actions Within the Civil Service                                     116

5:8        Investigation of cases on Disciplinary Procedure within the

Civil Service                                                                                                         118

5:9       Adequate Training of Civil Service Personnel                                                      120

5:10     Discrimination and Bias Judgment in Disciplinary Procedures in

Civil Service                                                                                                          122

5:11     Awareness of Disciplinary Procedures and Cases within the

Civil service and Job Performance                                                                         124

5:12     Job Performance within the Civil Service                                                             127

5:13     Relationship between investigation of Disciplinary cases and

Job Performance                                                                                                    129

5:14:    Relationship between Specially Trained Personnel Handling disciplinary

Cases and Job Performance of Civil Servants in Lagos and Ondo State

Civil Service                                                                                                           131

5.15     Relationship Between Discriminatory and Biased Judgment in

Disciplinary Procedure and Job performance of Civil Servants                            132



Figure                                                                                                                                  Page

1          Interaction of Variables of Disciplinary Procedure and Job Performance                 7

2          Examine Disciplinary Procedure Problems and Job Performance                              37

3          Disciplinary Procedure and Job Performance Management                                       51

4       State with Number of Questionnaire Distributed and Retrieved                                  110

5          Gender Distribution of the Respondents                                                                    111

6          Marital Status of the Respondents                                                                             112

7          Graphical illustration of the Respondents by Highest Qualification                          114

8          Designation of the Respondents                                                                                 115

9          Years of Service of the Respondents                                                                         116












1                                  Questionnaire

2                                  Letter of Interview

3                                  List of Government Ministries of Lagos State

4                                  List of Government Ministries of Ondo State




















1.1 Background to the Study

The Civil Service is an indispensable instrument for the implementation of government policies and programmes. This is because it is through the instrumentality of Civil Service that government policies are translated into services for the people (Maikudi, 2012).  On this note, Ugwu-olo (2007) averred that the success or failure of any policy of government is a function of the disposition of the civil servants to its implementation. Similarly, Abasili (2008) argued that no matter how well articulated government programmes may be, they cannot be successfully implemented without effective administrative machinery whose technical competence, loyalty and commitment should translate ministerial policies and programmes into action.

Put differently, there is little or no hope of success in the delivery of Services if the Civil Servants are not professional or ethical in their conducts. According to Gildenhuys (1991), poor, dishonest management of public affairs and corruption (immoral acts) are among the most common manifestations of unethical conduct. Maladministration and corruption in the public sector are usually widely broadcast and exaggerated, largely because the public sector is run with taxpayers’ money. For practitioners in the public sector, especially for public supervisors, it is important that there be guidelines for administering and directing the public service in other to place subordinates on the right track so as to prevent corruption and eliminate maladministration. It is worthy to note that the Civil Service is the heart, nucleus and core of the public service. The strength and efficiency of the Civil Service are vital to the success of the government machinery as a whole.  It is the loyalty and commitment of members of the Civil Service which ensures the effective translation into action of ministerial policies and programs.

The Nigerian Civil Service has its roots in the British system. Lagos and Ondo state Civil Service came into existence with the creation of each state in 1967 and 1976 respectively. Unfortunately, Nigerian Civil Service, and the Civil Service of the component states have had their fair share of political impasse with sundry reforms, thus altering their normal course.

The primary function of the Civil Service in Nigeria is to implement government policies and programmes. The ability of Civil Servants to perform this function effectively depends largely on the quality of training, motivation, integrity of the judges (supervisors) and other players.

Salisu (2011:67) opined that the traditional roles of the Civil servant in Nigeria has been diluted by the politicization of the Civil Service in recent years thereby undermining its credibility and integrity. Presidents and state governors tend to listen more to their close political supporters and associates than to professional Civil Servants because they are associated with inefficiency, ineffectiveness, corruption, self-centred and lack of accountability as such, government and the society no longer have confidence and trust in them.

The gross indiscipline among the rank and file of Civil Servants, makes it necessary to have disciplinary measures for the purpose of improving employees’ performance on the job.  Many factors such as motivation, training, poor work environment, inadequate information on employees’ feedback, discrimination and biased judgment to mention a few have contributed to employee low job performance. Supervisors who are faced with problems of correcting the abnormalities of their subordinates, to a large extent, think that formal discipline is the only method they can apply to deal with poor performance and unacceptable behaviour.

While some employee seem to think that supervisors take pleasure in meting out punishment the truth is that it is usually a dreaded exercise. However, it can often be done in an effective way. When employee discipline is done properly, it would not generate hurt feelings or resentments. On the other hand, when it is not done properly, it is often seen as unfair and can actually result in low job performance. Therefore, supervisors who impose discipline need to be disciplined and trained for the purpose of achieving disciplinary objective. This is because the primary objective of discipline is to correct certain behaviour or misconduct in respect of job performance and not punishment. This requires that the employees have adequate information (feedback) about their current performance, attendance or behaviour vis-a-vis the desired performance, (Aguinis, Joo and Gohfredson, 2011, Aguinis 2009). It is against this background that the study examines the disciplinary procedure and job performance among civil servants in Lagos and Ondo States.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

There have been claims and counter claims that the appropriate disciplinary process is not usually followed in the handling of cases involving civil servants. Many extra- legalistic factors were alleged to have been glossed over in the disciplinary procedure. There were insinuations that no efforts were made to investigate factors such as, why there is change in employee behaviour/attitude. Hence, many cases were alleged not to have been properly investigated before conclusion were drawn, such as that of Mrs. Ojikutu vs. Lagos State Ministry of Youth and Sports.(see pg 17)

There were suspicions that lapses in the disciplinary procedure could have been due to lack of or improper training of specialists to handle disciplinary cases. Presently, the Civil Service Commission delegated its power to the Permanent Secretary to constitute a Personnel Management Board when dealing with erring staff, with a representative from the commission, Ministry of Establishment and Training and the Public Service office as members, hence, the most senior officers are usually picked to be members of this committee based on their level of experience and not expertise. This method of selecting members of the committee may have negative consequences in the case of not following the appropriate disciplinary procedures. In addition, disciplinary cases and procedure published or gazetted for the consumption of civil servants are not within their immediate reach. This could have a negative effect on compliance with civil service rules and disciplinary procedure. It wasn’t surprising therefore some civil servants claimed that it was after they were disciplined that they became aware of the procedural rules guiding them. This problem of lack of awareness may have negative effect on civil servants’ job performance.

There have been several allegations of poor handling of disciplinary procedural cases glossing over of extra- legalistic factors in disciplinary cases, intrusion of political interference or affiliations, biases, improper training and composition of panels to handle disciplinary cases and non-gazetting of disciplinary cases. In order to attempt a clarification of these issues, this study investigated the effect of disciplinary procedure in Lagos and Ondo states on the job performance of Civil Servants.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the disciplinary procedures and job performance of civil servants in Lagos and Ondo States.  The specific objectives are to:

  1. identify the approved statutory disciplinary procedures in Lagos and Ondo States Civil Service;
  2. examine the effects of poorly investigated cases of disciplinary procedure on job performance of Civil Service in both states;

iii. appraise the effects of specially trained personnel handling disciplinary cases on job performance in Lagos and Ondo states;

  1. investigate the effect of discrimination and biased judgment of disciplinary cases on job performance of Civil Servants.
  2. appraise the effect of lack of awareness of disciplinary procedural cases on job performance of Civil Servants in the states under investigation.


1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the approved disciplinary procedures applicable in the Civil Service of Lagos and Ondo States?
  2. How has investigation of disciplinary cases affected job performance of Civil Servants in Lagos and Ondo States?
  3. What effect will a specially trained personnel handling disciplinary cases have on disciplinary procedure and job performance of Civil Servant in Lagos and Ondo States?
  4. Will discrimination and biased judgments in disciplinary process affect job performance of Civil Servants in Lagos and Ondo states?
  5. Can awareness of disciplinary procedure and cases affect job performance of Civil Servants in Lagos and Ondo states?


1.5 Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance

H1: There is significant relationship between poor investigations of disciplinary

procedural cases and job performance of Civil Servants in Lagos and Ondo States.

H2: There is significant relationship between specially trained/ experienced personnel

handling disciplinary procedure and Civil Servants job performance.

H3: There is significant relationship between discriminatory and biased judgments in

disciplinary procedure and job performance of civil servants in Lagos and Ondo



1.6 Justification for the Study

The Civil Service has been identified as an institution at the heart of the formulation and implementation of the policy of governments and therefore a major pillar contributing to the development and stability of any country. It is regarded as the engine for the processing of the vastly acquired and expanded responsibilities of a country’s governments and no nation has been able to advance beyond its civil service.

The fact that the Civil Service is the core of the Public Service and the effectiveness and performance of any government is principally determined by the efficiency of the Civil Service informs the various reforms aimed at improving it for efficient and effective Service delivery is regarded as critical to the promotion of sustained socioeconomic development of Nigeria.  Years after these reforms, the much anticipated result-oriented Civil Service had not developed in Nigeria.

This study is therefore both timely, significant and justified. An in-depth investigation of the administration of disciplinary procedures and the consequences that such administration portends for job performance in Lagos and Ondo States Civil Service will help contribute to the sparse knowledge in this area. In addition, the suggestions and recommendations proffered in this study will help ensure effective administration of disciplinary procedures for better job performance in the Nigerian Civil Service. Finally, the result to be presented in this work will be useful to scholars who may wish to carry out further research on Nigerian Civil Service as this study will be a useful reference material for them.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the disciplinary procedures in Nigeria’s Civil Service with specific reference to Lagos and Ondo States between 2005 and 2015. The scope of this study is limited to the application of disciplinary process for improved job performance in Lagos State Civil Service (LSCS) and Ondo State Civil Service (OSCS) within the above stated period. Lagos State Civil Service (LSCS) was chosen being the highest employer of labour after the Federal Government with a staff strength of One hundred and eighteen thousand,  three hundred and forty seven (118,347)  (Source, and it represents the true nature of Nigeria in terms of ethnic, religious and cultural affluence. Ondo State Civil Service (OSCS) with a staff strength of Eleven Thousand Nine Hundred and Fifty (11,950) as at May 2003. (Source, Ondo State Civil Service Commission Annual Report 2013) was selected based on the fact that it represents other states of the federation that does not possess strong socio-economic affluence like Lagos State.

1.8 Operationalization of Variables

Job performance (JP) depends on

  1. Poor Investigation of cases (PI)
  2. Inadequate Training and Lack of Motivation (TM)

iii.  Discrimination and Bias Judgement (DBJ)

  1. Lack of Integrity (I)
  2. Improper Feedback (F)
  3. Disciplinary procedure (DP)

JP = βo + β1 PI + β2 TM + β3 DBJ + β4 I + β5 F + U.





Research Model








Figure 1: Interaction of variables of Disciplinary procedure and job performance

Source:  Researcher (2015)


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Civil Service: “Civil Service of the state” means service of the government of a state in a civil capacity as staff of the office of the Governor, Deputy Governor or a ministry or department of the government of the state assigned with the responsibility for any business of the government of the state. (The Nigeria Constitution, as amended, 1999. Section 318)

Public Service: Public Service is a body or organ which enjoys continuity of existence. It is made up of the Civil Service, the Teaching Service, the Health Service, the Local Government Service, the Judiciary, Parastatal Organisations, Government-Owned Companies and Tertiary Institutions.

Job performance: The accomplishment of a given task measured against the standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed

Discipline: A process or procedure  of controlling one’s behaviour and actions either in public or private sector, through self-motivation, training, and punishment in order to achieve set objectives. (Adewumi, 2012)

Formulation and Implementation: This is considered as a very significant step in identifying the consequences of policy decisions and the translation of policy into plans of action. It deals with policy problems, that is, the problems that need analytical thinking for resolution and deals with activities that help to supply the necessary information to the decision-maker. (Arowolo, 2010)

Ethics: The basic concepts and fundamental principles of decent human conduct in business environment or at home. It includes study of human attitude such as the essential equality of  men and women, human or natural rights and obedience to the law of the  land. (Nnoli 2008)

Performance Management: Haenisch (2012) defined performance management as a “process by which the company manages its performance in line with its corporate and functional strategies and objectives”. This definition is often used in management research studies. According to Haenisch (2012), it is the objective of that process to provide an integrated control system, where the corporate and functional strategies are deployed to all business processes, activities, tasks and personnel, and feedback is obtained through the performance measurement of an individual to enable appropriate management decisions.

1.10 Organisation of Work

This study is organized into six chapters.

Chapter One introduces the study and gives a description of the background to the study. It highlights the research problem, the aim and objectives of the study, the geographical and time scope of the study and the delimitation of the scope to a particular section. Chapter Two dwells on a review of the literature and the theoretical framework of the study. It centres essentially on previous and existing work on discipline and performance in the public Service. It identifies the inherent gap in the literature and the likely contributions of the present study. Chapter three of the study deals with the historical exploration of Nigerian Civil Service. It examines the various administrative reforms, disciplinary methods and process and their impacts on job performance of the Nigerian Civil Service. Chapter four focuses on the methodology of the research.  It deals with the research design and sources of data, the population of study, sample size and the sampling technique, the instrument of data collection and method of data analysis. Chapter Five deals with data presentation, Analysis and discussion of findings of data obtained through primary sources on the disciplinary procedures and job performance of Lagos and Ondo States’ Civil Service. Chapter Six is the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation of the study.


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