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Drying is a unit operation that is employed to calcuim sulphate slurries in order to remove or reduce the content of the liquid to an acceptable low value.  The liquid content of a dried calcium sulphate varies from product to product.


The experiment was carried out in the ceramic laboratory where the same quantity of plaster of paris (P.O.P) where measured out and mix thoroughly with specific amount of water.  It was stirred continuously so as to form a shry.  We prepared seven different samples but of the same quantity of plastic of paris (P.O.P) and water and then, was place inside a dryer )Oven) in which the samples derived with different time because of the different in temperatures.


The material was weighed before drying and after drying which helped us to know the constant rate period. W e make sure all the samples reaches the constant rate period.


TITLE PAGE                                                                ii

DEDICATION                                                               iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                              iv

ABSTRACT                                                                  v


INTRODUCTION                                                          1



LITERATURE REVIEW                                               4



ANALYSIS / PROCEDURE                                         14



DISCUSSION                                                               28



CONCLUSION / RECOMMENDATION                     34



REFERENCE                                                               36













Calcium sulphate hemi hydrate as it is called has a chemical formula (CaS04 ½ H2O). Calcuim sulphate is made from mineral gypsum with chemical formula (CaSO4 2H2O)


The material gypsum is of fairly widely occurrence almost pure and wide various impurities which colour it and modify the properties of the plasters of paris (POP) made from it



The slight difference in chemical formula of the mineral gypsum and plaster of paris (P.O.P) is half molecule of water crystallization thus.  Crypsum caso42H20 M.W 172. 18 Calcium sulphate 79.1% H2O 20. 19% Plaster of paris (POP) Caso4 ½ H2O M.W 154. 16 CaSoO4  93.8% H2O 6.2% Anhydrous caso4 M.W 136.15 Calcium sulphate (Caso4) 100% Successful production of calcium sulphate from gypsum is complicated by the number of possible dehydration product.



Theme are two hemihydrates & and B. the & form markes much stronger and generally more satisfactory plaster and is therefore the desired dehydration product.



There are also four types of anhydrous calcium sulphate obtained by stronger heating of gypsum.


The & hemihydrate forms by recrystallization of gypsum from water above 1150C (239of) it’s formation is therefore favoured by heating gypsum in a sufficiently damp atmosphere for there to be a thin absorbed water layer on the particle B – hemihydrat is formed when gypsum is heated rapidly in dry atmosphere above 1000C (2120f), On heating ground gypsum the temperature rises until 120‑C (2620f) when violent boiling occurs.  The temperature does not rise again until this has ceased and the plaster enters the first settle, on further heating a second sharter period of boiting begins at 1630C (32.0f) after which plaster enters the “second settle”.


On continued further heating the hemihydrate begins to decompose, giving off water and being converted into the anhydrous salt at 800 – 10000C (1470-18300f) the dead Bioned gypsum or keene’s cement is attained.


First settle plaster is more plastic and easier to work than second settle material.  The later, however gives a denser and stronger set.



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