This work focused on the E-Examination And Skill Acquisition In Tertiary Institutions In Anambra State (A Study Of Federal Polytechnic Oko) 2014-2018. The problem of the topic includes that, examination malpractices, poor time management by the examiners, inadequate invigilators, poor condition of examination venues, bias in marking examination scripts by the lecturers, delay in the release of results, problem of managing large number of students. The main objective of the study is to assess e-examination and skill acquisition in tertiary institutions in Anambra State, other specific objectives is to ascertain the perception of the lecturers’ on the use of the CBE by students in the FPO. To identify the lecturers’ perception of the students’ acceptability of the computer-based tests in the FPO. The research questions are in-line with the objectives of the study. Related, scholarly works were reviewed. Cognitive theory was by propounded by Taylor (1998) was adopted. Descriptive design was employed, the population was two Hundred and fifty (250). Yaro Yamane statistical formular was used to carry out the sample size and the sample size was two hundred and twenty (220). The research distributed Two Hundred and fifty (250) questionnaires and retrieved Two Hundred and twenty (220) which was used for data analysis and simple percentage was also used for data analysis. The findings of the study includes, The main reason for entrepreneurship skill acquisition for potential graduates is to prevent the frustrating and debasing experience of unemployment. Therefore, it was concluded and recommendation that, Entrepreneurship should be enhanced by the acquisition of certain skills including language skills.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Electronic examination has been highly interested and suitable in both educational and pedagogical aspects. Examination is one of the best methods of evaluating the knowledge and ability of an individual. To this end, various methods has been employed in examining the ability of an individual, starting from manual means of using paper and pencil to electronic, from oral to written, practical to theoretical and many others. The present information technology means of examining students is the use of electronic systems in place of manual or paper method which was characterized by massive examination leakages, impersonations, demand for gratification by teachers, bribe-taking by supervisors and invigilators of examinations.
In Nigeria, University education is the focal point of higher education. It is the type of education given to individuals after secondary level of education. University Education is the nation’s hope for national development. According to Olaniyan, O. (2001), University education is expected to create needed human capital with enhanced skills that can lead to technological innovation, productivity and growth within the economy. Universities are viewed in many African countries as critical institutions for development where a wide range of subjects are taught at higher level thus producing corps of educated elites to serve the community and the entire nation. Generally, University education is fundamental to the construction of a knowledge economy and society within nations.
The Federal Ministry of Education (FME), (2008), reveals that the vision of the Nigerian higher (tertiary) education system has the following expectations: To be (i) relevant and responsive to the needs of the society (ii) adequate in quantity and quality with a well motivated, highly skilled and qualified staff whose products are knowledgeable, technically competent and adequately prepared to fulfilled life and for positive contribution in the society. The National Universities Commission (NUC) became a statutory body by virtue of Act No. 1 of 1974 concerned with the maintenance of high standards of quality in Nigerian Universities. The federal government introduced system-wide accreditation of their academic programmes by provisions of Act No 16, 1985. This law empowers the NUC to lay down minimum academic standards for all the academic programmes taught in Nigerian universities and also to accredit them. FME, (2000) observed that university education in Nigeria is in a state of decay .The recent debate about the place of Nigerian universities in the ranking of world universities has once again drawn attention to the deplorable state of the country’s ivory towers and the lowly place of higher education among national priorities. Whereas Webometrics Ranking of Universities (which measures web presence and content) does not mention a single Nigerian university until after 1,600 other universities, the Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Ranking, which concentrates on programme and instructional content, does not mention a Nigerian university at all. Aina (2002), Babalola (2002) and Samuel, T. (2003) further affirmed that federal universities in Nigeria were lacking the financial resources to maintain educational quality in the face of enrolment explosion. The inadequate funding of the universities has had adverse effect on teaching and research and has also led to brain drain of the academics. Ayo S. M and Akinyemi S. (2011) said that in this era of globalization in education, Nigeria cannot afford to run a university system that compromises quality if she is to compete in the global economy. Globalization of the world economy is the integration of economies through trade, financial flows, exchange of technology information and the movement of people. In order to meet the challenges of the 21st century and absolute internalization, there is the need for education to imbibe the global culture and adopt ardent consideration of development in line with the current technological trends.
According to Gaskell, J.S. (1995), the heart of education is quality. The concern for quality in university education in Nigeria is most desirable for the economic, political, scientific and technological development and advancement of any nation. Quality in education has to do with the quality in educational input and output in its entirety. The quality of the educational system can be assessed by ‘how adequate and accessible the facilities and materials needed for effective teaching and learning are available in order to ensure that educational programmes meet up the national objectives. Nwanna M. I. (2000) refers to quality in education as the scale of input in the form of funds, equipment facilities, teacher and pupils alike and to the fact that the transaction and output of institutions in the form of their product are acceptable, desirable, beneficial, efficient and effective from the point of view of the government, society, private agencies and stakeholders. Igwe, S.O. (2007) sees quality in higher education to cut across policy formulation to implementation of educational process covering the scope of curriculum; teaching/learning process; resources and facilities; students and teachers environment. The quality of university graduates, according to Urah, I.I. (2005) could be measured by how well they have been prepared for life and for service to society in various spheres of human endeavour. Examination which is the process of conducting assessment or evaluation on students or learners in other to evaluate the students’ understanding of knowledge impacted. It is also a process of gaining feedback or response on impacted knowledge. Olatunbosun J.B. (2009) has it that till date examination still remained the best tool for an objective assessment and evaluation of what learners have achieved after a period of schooling. Hence, any action that undermines examinations poses a great threat to the validity and reliability of examination results and certificate. In the last two decades, Nigeria has witnessed an alarming rate of increase in incident of examination misconduct. Evidences abound of increasing incident of examination malpractices by students, teachers and parents. Examination malpractices has become so widespread that there is virtually no examination anywhere at all levels and even outside the formal school system that there is no one form of sharp practice or the other and that every examination seasons witness the emergence of new and ingenious ways of cheating. In recent times, Egwunyenga E.J. (2009), has it that, the Universities in Nigeria have been facing a number of problems/crises. These are largely manifested in the inadequacies in the supply of basic instructional materials facilities infrastructure, students over population, lack of accommodation for staff and student examination malfeasance among others. Currently the most disturbing of these entire problem is examination malfeasance which has posed a new challenge in the administration of education. This idea was confirmed by Olubiyi, A. et al (2012), that since the inception of the university education,, the conduct of examination as well as the process of producing results has been fraught with various problems leading to inability to release results on time, inability of some students to get their results and several incomplete results.
Throughout the world, education is regarded as a strong tool for the development of nations. This is the basis for education for all. The development of any nation is related to the development of human beings. Odimegwu, (2005) posits that governments all over the world are aware of the place of education and so invest seriously in the education industry as a way of laying a strong foundation for national growth. It is believed that high quality education will serve as a catalyst for human and national development. Successful human development should be seen in terms of the ability of the school graduates to fit in well into the society, to find a way to develop gainful employment and not to walk the streets for non- existent jobs. This scenario raises a number of issues. Despite the huge investments in education, despite the population explosion in our tertiary institutions, despite the constant review of entry requirements for admission purposes and review of mode of entry, the products of our education system seem to be falling short of expectation resulting in unemployment, underdevelopment and poverty.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The search for adequate and appropriate methods of conducting examinations in schools has continued to pose challenges to stakeholders of the education sector. Conducting examinations in tertiary institutions of learning in the country has always been a major course for worry as the process is characterized with examination malpractices, poor time management by the examiners, inadequate invigilators, poor condition of examination venues, bias in marking examination scripts by the lecturers, delay in the release of results, problem of managing large number of students, among others. Examination malpractice is also a common practice by students, teachers and parents in institutions (Philemon, 2007). It is often observed that there are delays in the marking of students’ scripts and submission of such results for processing. Cases of missing results are common in the tertiary institutions due to the method of assessment. These problems most times retard the students from graduating at the stipulated time thereby leading to educational wastages. Some students might have been demoralized as a result of delay in the computation of their results. Alteration of result scores and illegal upgrading of results may have characterized the practices of many tertiary institutions in Nigeria which further reduces the authenticity of the certificates awarded in these institutions. What are, therefore, the perceptions of lecturers on the use of CBE as mode of assessment of students in tertiary institutions in Anambra State? Although several studies have been carried out in the area of computer-based testing, no study has been undertaken in tertiary institutions in Anambra State on the lecturers’ perceptions of the use of computer-based examination. Hence, a knowledge gap exists in literature which this study sought to fill.
1.3 Research Questions
(a) What is the perception of the lecturers’ on the use of the CBE by students in the FPO?
(b) What is the lecturers’ perception of the students’ acceptability of the computer-based tests in the FPO?
(c) To what extent does school type influence lecturers’ perception on the issue of skill acquisition and use of the CBE as a mode of assessment of the students in the FPO?
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to assess e-examination and skill acquisition in tertiary institutions in Anambra State. Specifically, the study sought to:
(a) To ascertain the perception of the lecturers’ on the use of the CBE by students in the FPO
(b) To identify the lecturers’ perception of the students’ acceptability of the computer-based tests in the FPO.
(c) To examine the extent school type influence lecturers’ perception on the issue of skill acquisition and use of the CBE as a mode of assessment of the students in the FPO.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
For the purpose of analysing the data generated for the study, the following hypotheses were tested;
H01: There are no significant factors affecting the perception of the lecturers’ on the use of the CBE by students in the FPO
H02: lecturers’ perception of the students’ acceptability of the computer-based tests in the FPO are strong.
H03: There are school type influence lecturers’ perception on the issue of skill acquisition and use of the CBE as a mode of assessment of the students in the FPO.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research work is of great relevance to the society at large. This is applicable to the Tertiary Institutions, the readers of this research work and to the researcher.
The benefit of this research work to the Tertiary Institutions is that by the end of the research, the weak-points and short – comings of all the academic sectors of the nation would be pinpointed and displayed based on findings, thereby proffering solution to the problem.
To the reader, they will be upgraded intellectually and also will be highly informed of the up and doings of the current administration in the above institution aforementioned. It will also give the reader’s insight on how the E-Examination And Skill Acquisition In Tertiary Institutions, helps the country geared towards the achievement of national development especially human capital development among the graduate.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The essence of this research work is to study E-Examination And Skill Acquisition In Tertiary Institutions In Anambra State. The research intends to focus on the Federal Polytechnic Oko: 2014-2018.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
In the course of writing and carrying out this project work, the research encountered many difficulties; some errors in the results of the research and from external sources of data collection. These are factors standing as constraints thereby limiting the effect of the research result.
Among these are, time finance , scope and use of wrong statistics in data analysis, due to time limit, the research work is a time consuming one. A lot of time is taken to observe the subjects.
Most times the behaviour of the staff changes even when they are aware that they are being observed by the researcher, this is by taking their behavior. The researcher also observed that these senior staff some time give true and false information in order to cover their branches.
At sometime the research work lasted over two months due to large scope of area of the study.
1.9 Operationization/Definition of Terms
For the purpose of clarity, the concepts of E-Examination And Skill Acquisition In Tertiary Institutions will be used interchangeably in the discourse
Skill acquisition; in sport can be described as a pyramid with fundamental movement skills at the bottom, with specialized movement skills on the middle level and with skilled performance atop of the pyramid. In the process of making real champions and excellent athletes coaches and teachers should take into account that skill acquisition in sport has three main phases.
E-EXAMINATION; Is a timed, supervised, summative assessment conducted using each candidate’s own computer running a standardised operating system.
Examination malpractice is defined as any deliberate act of wrong doing, contrary to the rules of examinations designed to give a candidate an undue advantage.
Examination (exam) is a test. Many things may be examined, but the word is most often used for an assessment of a person.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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