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The study is on Educating A Girl – Child And Women Empowerment in Anambra State: (A Study of Idemili North LGA) 2014-2020. The girl-child, and indeed women the world over, especially in Africa and Nigeria has had their destiny sealed from birth by tradition and culture on account of their biological sex. They have been called the weaker sex in order to justify societal discrimination and oppression against them. The objectives of the study is a. To ascertain the level of Girl-Child education and women empowerment in Idemili North, Anambra state. To evaluate the contributions of the have Idemili North Local Government toward girl-child education child and empowerment women. Survey design was consider appropriate for this study we sought opinions of youth employment through the establishment of Educating A Girl – Child And Women Empowerment In Anambra State. Survey design was deemed the most appropriate for gathering data required for the study since survey design centers on people, the beliefs, opinions, attitude and behaviors. The survey research method was adopted for the study and the study relied on primary and secondary data. The population of this study consists of 600 staffs of Idemili North LGA. Sample is the primary concern in statistic sample. The sample is obtained from the population consisted of 224 out of the total population. Research finding indicate that our educational system is not been well planned as to produce professionals, in all fields of human endeavour who are capable of employing themselves in their own establishment as small scale enterprises. In conclusion, the Nigerian women have proved to be more than a mere bench-worming spectator even in the midst of the male dominated professional congregation. Three of such dominated professions- The Nigerian medical Association, The Nigerian Bar Association and the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria, have been in recent time by female Presidents. Having established the fact that our government have not done much for the Educating A Girl – Child And Women Empowerment in the State. Girl-child education and its Challenges‖ shall be of help to policymakers, Universal Basic Education (UBE), Local Government Education Authority (LEA) and the general public on how to handle and resolve those obstacles and challenges that hinders the education of the girl-child and advance their education in Idemili North Government Areas, Anambra state and Nigeria as a whole.






Cover Page                                                                                                               i

Title Page                                                                                                                 ii

Declaration                                                                                                              iii

Certification                                                                                                            iv

Approval page                                                                                                         v

Dedication                                                                                                                vi

Acknowledgements                                                                                                vii

Table of Contents                                                                                             viii-ix

Abstract                                                                                                                    x




INTRODUCTION                                                                                                   1

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                             1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                            3

1.3       Research Questions                                                                                     3

1.4       Purpose of the Study                                                                                    4

1.5       Significance of the Study                                                                            5

1.6       Scope of the Study                                                                                       6

1.7       Limitations of the Study                                                                              6

1.8       Definition of Terms                                                                                      7

1.9       Organizations of the Study                                                                         9





Literature Review and Theoretical Framework

2.1       Literature Review                                                                                         11

2.2       Theoretical Framework                                                                               23



Research Methodology

3.1       Research Design                                                                                           29

3.2       Area of the Study                                                                                         29

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                               30

3.4       Sample size and Sampling Techniques                                                     30

3.5       Method of Data Collection                                                                         31

3.6       Instruments for Data Collection                                                                 31

3.7       Reliability of the Instrument                                                                       31

3.8       Validity of the Instrument                                                                           32

3.9       Distribution and Retrieval of Instruments                                                32

3.10    Method of Data Analysis                                                                            32



Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1       Data Presentation                                                                                         34

4.2       Analysis of Research Questions                                                                37

4.3       Interpretation of Results                                                                              43






5.1       Summary of findings                                                                                   45

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                    45

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                       46

References                                                                                                    48

Appendix A                                                                                                  49

Appendix B                                                                                                  50






1.1 Background to the Study

The girl-child is a biological female offspring from birth to 18 years of age. During this period, the young girl is totally under the care of the adult who may be parents, guardians or elder siblings. It is also a period when the girl-child is malleable, builds and develops her personality and character. She is very dependent on others on who she models her behaviour, through observation, repetition and imitation. Her physical, mental, social, spiritual and emotional developments start and progress to get to the peak at the young adult stage (Sutherland, 2001).

The development of any society would be grossly lopsided if the girl child is not given quality education. Education in any normal society is accepted as an instrument to power, prestige, survival, greatness and advancement for men and women. The United Nations General Assembly (2001) adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which stipulates that everyone has the right to education which shall be free at least in elementary and primary stages. Similarly, the National Policy on Education emphasizes among other things that there will be equal opportunities for all citizens. However, Osinulu (1994) lamented that the Girl Child is discriminated against in terms of education and given out to marriage early thereby denying the Girl-Child the required competences for community development.

Education is a basic human right and has been recognized as such since the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights. A positive correlation exists between the enrollment of girls in primary school and the gross national product and increase of life expectancy (Wikipedia, 2012). Because of this correlation, enrollment in schools represents the largest component of the investment in human capital in any society. Rapid socio-economic development of a nation has been observed to depend on the caliber of women and their education in that country. Education bestows on women a disposition for a lifelong acquisition of knowledge, values, attitudes, competence and skills. Women in Nigeria have had various challenges in order to obtain equal education.

In recognition of the fact that in many countries, both developed and developing, the status of girls is significantly worse than that of boys, the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995, identified the persistent discrimination against the girl child and the violation of her rights as one of the 12 critical areas of concern requiring urgent attention by governments and the international community among which is the need for increasing girl-child education. Without access to education, girls are denied the knowledge and skills needed to advance their status. By educating girls, societies stand to gain economically.

History has shown that development can occur only when every member that constitutes the society participates in its development. Hence development should be seen as a collective responsibility of all the people that make up the society irrespective of sex, age class. (Ijere 1486).

Though the colonial administration gave little recognition to the socio-economic status of women thus women’s role in economic empowerment  was relegated  to kitchen and catering to the needs of their children and husband. While empowerment and trade were for men.

Now the Nigerian woman has gone beyond the stage of merely agitating for liberation or equal right with her male counterpart. The nation’s current constitution of 1979 accepts the obligation to accord women the same treatment as is accorded to men in all spheres of life, particularly in all areas covered by the convention. Women, today contribute over 80% of the nations food supply. (Ijere 2006).

Though women contribute over 80% of the nations food supply, their economic power are still limited. They have limited access to ownership of land and housing, limited participation in nation building. The role of women in economic empowerment is determined by the society and also by the societal perception of the status and place of women and the extents of their participation in economic development of their family and the society in general.

In Nigeria today, the women folk have come a long way in businesses, politics, education, sports and other professions. They have made an indelible mark in their efforts to conquer the limitations of the past which have sought to place them permanently in the kitchen and bedroom. However, it is not all through a bed of roses for women and their empowerment. Majority of Nigerian women have not been fully mobilized and empowered to contribute to national development. If it had been so, we would not still be talking about good health for women, educational, economic, social, cultural and political empowerment of women. It is on this note that we will attempt to explore challenges of educating a girl – child and women empowerment in Anambra state, Idemili North LGA.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The girl-child, and indeed women the world over, especially in Africa and Nigeria has had their destiny sealed from birth by tradition and culture on account of their biological sex. They have been called the weaker sex in order to justify societal discrimination and oppression against them. They must remain silent hewers of wood and drawers of water, bearers of children, and toilers of arduous labour from sun-rise to sun-down. They can be seen but not to be heard in both the private and the public spaces of decision making. The girl-child by the natural status ascribed to her by male defined norms of societal conduct and behaviour remains a property to be owned and commoditized. Consequently, her rights are circumscribed by tradition, custom, and the chauvinism of male patriarchy. No community will remain undeveloped if it has the required human capital and the best instrument for developing any society is to invest in human capital (Richardson, 2009). This is because

the acquired knowledge and skills will guarantee the economic and social liberation of the individual and by implication enhances their contributions to community and national development (Efe, 2001).

Essentially, the Girl-child must be educated in terms of their role in the society, whether as Producers or Reproducers; they are mainly responsible for the care and well-being of their families, they play an important role as educators of future generations, they perform economic functions and social functions (Ballara, 2002). As more and more women are educated, the health of the nation improves. With rising education among the girl child (women), there will be also a rise of women in the labour force; women education aids in the protection of the environment and also improves agricultural practices. Thus, for society to be developed, the Girl-child must be allowed access to good and qualitative education (Ballara, 2002).

It is against this background that this study will seek to identify and examine specific challenges of educating a girl – child and women empowerment in Anambra state, Idemili North LGA.


1.3 Research Questions

The following research questions are raised to guide this study:

  1. What is the level of girl-child education and women empowerment in Idemili North, Anambra state?
  2. How have Idemili North Local Governments contributed to the education of the girl child and empowerment women?
  3. What are specific challenges of girl-child education in Idemili North Local Government?
  4. How can these challenges be handled or resolved in the study areas.


1.4 Purpose of the Study

The aim of this study is to identify and examine specific challenges of girl-child education in Idemili North Local Government.

The objectives are:

  1. To ascertain the level of Girl-Child education and women empowerment in Idemili North, Anambra state.
  2. To evaluate the contributions of the have Idemili North Local Government toward girl-child education child and empowerment women.
  3. To identify and discuss challenges of girl-child education in the study areas; and
  4. To make recommendations that will help to improve girl-child education in the study areas.


1.5 Significance of the Study

The girl-child is an important asset of advancement in any society. The absence of adequate girl-child education means a huge loss of human resource and potential and has costs for both men and women and also on development. Girls grow to eventually become women and they must be included and accommodated in all forms of opportunities and resources as their male counterparts. Closing the gap in education and ensuring that more girls are educated is essential not only for building a just society, but also a pre-requisite for suitable development. Education is the right of every girl-child, and it is a key to transforming her life and making her a responsible member of the society. Without education, girls are denied the opportunity to develop their full potentials and play productive roles in the society. Although some efforts has been made to improve girl-child education in Nigeria, much still needs to be done if women must realize their potentials and fully contribute to the political, socio-economic and technological transformation of the country.

The findings of this study ―Girl-child education and its Challenges‖ shall be of help to policymakers, Universal Basic Education (UBE), Local Government Education Authority (LEA) and the general public on how to handle and resolve those obstacles and challenges that hinders the education of the girl-child and advance their education in Idemili North Government Areas, Anambra state and Nigeria as a whole.

This study will add to existing body of knowledge on the Challenges of educating a girl – child and women empowerment in Anambra state and with specific reference to Idemili North Local Government and in Nigeria as a whole.

The study would equally be of help to fellow students who would want to embark on similar research work. It would provide them with the rudiment/elements of research report writing as well as relevant literature, which could serve as a starting point.



1.6 Scope of the Study

Education is a vast area of study and an inquiry into this area could be time among other resources consuming. To this end, this study will specifically focus on educating a girl – child and women empowerment in Anambra state with more enquiries to be centered on its challenges. The study will also restrict its coverage to Idemili Local Government of Anambra State.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

In the course of writing and carrying out this research work.

The researcher experienced time constant, the time allowed was in adequate considering the time scope of the study,  since the researcher had to use the same time organized group of living e allowed for lectures, assignment and exams.

The researcher also encounter response of the respondent convincing the people to level the much needed information, on the study was a difficult task as most of them seems to be unwilling to do so. Another limitation was financial constraints, money was needed for transportation matters sourcing, pointing of questionnaires, phones calls to the area of study and supervisor as well as internal search which was not always enough. The researcher was able to overcome the limitation where by being fearless, having enough finance for the research and time conscious.


1.8 Definition of Terms

  1. Girl-child Education: Girl-child education is defined as a process whereby the girl-child acquires adequate and appropriate knowledge, skill, attitudes and values in order to function optimally as a citizen. It can be operationally defined as;
  2. Learning experience organized for female students under the age of 18 in order to make them useful members of the society in which they belong.
  3. Programme aimed at giving out of school girls vocational skills to help them break through economically

iii. Literacy skills

  1. Girls enrollment, retention and completion of school from primary to secondary
  2. Cultural beliefs: This can be defined as set of shared values, norms, goals and practices that characterizes a group, society or community. It can be operationally defined as;
  3. Early marriage and child bearing
  4. Household duties

iii. Parent‘s perceptions

  1. Traditional practices
  2. Religion
  3. Hawking practices/ child labor

vii. Low self-concept

  1. Education programmes and policies: This can be defined as a course of action, principle, plan or decision adopted by government and other organizations to achieve specific educational goals. It can be operationally defined as;
  2. Universal Basic Education(UBE)
  3. Millennium Hope Programme

iii. Vocational and skill acquisition centres

  1. Public enlightenment
  2. Structures for mobilization
  3. Incentives for the girl-child

Economic Empowerment: This is the process by which group, communities or sex with low per capital national income may increase their production of goods and services employment level of demand so as to raise their standard of living.(Grenchine 1081)

Enlightenment: This is getting an individual to adopt to the environment in which he lives by inculcating in him those knowledge, skills, values and attitudes required for his day-to-day activities. It could be seen as an instrument for modernization and change.


1.9 Organization of Study

This study will be structured into filled chapters

  • Chapter one provides the background and the problem being addressed and tried to provide attentive and silver to those questions.
  • Chapter two is an interactive reviews and theoretical frameworks there exists an account of what has been published on the phenomenon under reviews. It is an assessment of the literature and provides a summary, classification, comparison and evaluation. Theoretical framework, therefore presented a theory that explain the particular problem under study.
  • Chapter thee, it gives the research methodology, it gives how the researcher got his/her information. It consist of research design, area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, methods of data collection, validity of the instruments for data collection, reliability of the instrument, validity of the instruments, and methods of data analysis.
  • Chapter four presents the data to achieve proper analysis of the study of breaking up the whole into its consistent parts of categories according to the specific research questions under the statement of the problem thereby interpreting the numerical data that has been collected, analyzed and collected.
  • Chapter five which is the last chapter is where the finding and the whole re work will be summarized, generalized inform of conclusion will be made, and recommendations for the solution of problems discovered in the study will be addressing to those concerned. Work will be summarized, generalized informed of conclusion will be made, and recommendations for the solution of problems discovered in the study will be addressed to those concerned.



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