Page Length: 100

Size: 202 KB

Format: PDF & Word



This project work is mainly based on the theoretical and practical approach of the ownership influence and challenges on media establishment in effective dissemination of news and information. In this work, the researcher tried to revaluate types of media that is government owned media like Enugu state broadcasting service (ESBS) with a view to recommending a more effective ownership, that is the type of ownership influence and challenges that geared towards attainment professionalism in media operation particularly in Nigeria.  Moreover, it is also done in a critically way in order to examine the challenges facing Nigeria media establishment like radio, television, newspaper, magazine, journals etc.  the researchers narrowed down this research to radio using ESBS as focus.  Below is  a brief run-down of my research procedures and findings. The first chapter looked at the historical background of the study, stating the research problems and the aims and objectives of the study.  It also highlighted the significance, research question and limitations of the study.  Chapter two helps to review critically the related literature.  While chapter three states the research method to be used in carrying out the research analysis.  Chapter four helps to analyze the data collected and the result of the research in relation to research question. Finally, chapter five helps to summarize the entire research work and gives some recommendations for further studies.





Title Page                                                              ii

Approval Page                                                        iii

Dedication                                                             iv

Acknowledgement                                                   v

Abstract                                                                vi

Table of Contents                                                   vii



  • Background of the study 1
  • Statement of Problem 16
  • Objectives of the study 18
  • Significance of the study 19
  • Research Questions 20
  • Hypothesis of the study 21
  • Theoretical frame work 22

1.8  Scope of the study                                           23

1.9 limitation of study                                              29

1.10 Definition of Terms                                           30


  • Literature Review

2.1  Sources of Literature                                         32

  • The Review 32
  • Summary of literature review 47


3.0  Research Methodology                                      49

  • Research Design 49
  • Area of the Study 51
  • Research Population 51
  • Research Sample                                             51
  • Sampling Techniques 52
  • Instrument of Data Collection 54
  • Method of Data Collection 54
  • Method of Data Analysis 55
  • Expected Result 56


  • Data Presentation and Analysis                          57
  • Analysis of Research Questions/Hypothesis 60
  • Discussion of Result 75


5.0  Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Summary of Findings 77
  • Conclusion 80
  • Recommendations 81










Since the inception of colonialism, the government over the years enjoyed a monopoly of the proprietorship of broadcasting stations with all the implications of that monopoly. That the right to private ownership of the broadcast media, implied in the right to freedom of expression, enshrined in section 36 of the 1979 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria is circumscribed within sub-section 2 of that same section which states thus: “provided that no person, other than the federation or a state or any other person or body authorized by the president shall own, establish or operate a television or wireless broadcasting station for any purpose whatsoever”.

The provision in section 38(2) 4 the 1989 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria is the same as that quoted above.

The various governments of Nigeria declined the idea of private ownership of broadcasting stations even with this concession in the above sections of the constitution a provision for establishment of private broadcast institution on the specific approval of the country’s president what was seen as the monopoly by the various government of the powerful organs of the electronic media to preserve their hold on power generated controversial debate as far back as the 1980’s when the issue of private insertion was a constant feature in most write-up. Professional seminars and conferences touching on the media.

Notwithstanding, the private ownership are still control and influenced by the government and they works in the direction of the government because of their close relationship, that’s why Mr. osi ogboso, the chairman of Nigeria union of journalist (NUJ) Enugu chapter stated that ownership and control of mass media objectivity has gone beyond government ownership that even the private media are influenced by the government due to financed support.

The inception of the federal communication commission created in 1934 to regulate broadcasting in the public interest began to tighten the obligations of the “fairness doctrine” in 1970 required that broadcasters who present a series on controversial issues or who editorialize invite specific spokesmen to state contrasting views.

The media of mass communication has two important broad sub-divisions vizs. The electronic and the print media. The pint media include a whole range of printed materials. Mainly the newspaper, and magazine, these are regional, national and international informers which provides retrievable, researched and in depth news stories of events.

Since it’s inception in 1859, courtesy of Henry Townsend, either individuals have always owned print media, groups of individuals, organizations or government be state or national. Due to the pluralistic nature of control, the competition thereof, and the greater popularity of the print media, it has always being a vital instrument of enlightenment. In fact, it was instrumental in the struggle to gain independence for Nigeria in 1960 courtesy of zik’s paper “pilot of Africa”. However, the individuals or groups that establish newspapers/ magazines have always used it to propagate their interests. But on the whole, it has played a major role in informing, educating and entertaining the society.

Moreover, print media enjoy less control and censorship from the government. The other arm of mass communication media. It comprises of the radio and television. It has not been as enterprising as it should be neither is it as competitive and free as the print media. This is attributable to the majority ownership and control of the electronic media by the government. This attribute is not a recent phenomenon. It can be traced to the political experience of the western region of Nigeria in the first republic where. “During the 1962-1965 political crises in the western region, broadcasting was employed freely by the government of the day as an instrumental for waging an offensive against opposition. Again MINAJ was once shoot down because of a report against the government.

Following the activities of major political actors, the government saw it’s effectiveness and efficacy, then decided to only trust the electronic media into the care of it’s royals. I therefore tried with the idea of tying the ratio and television to what Mr. lgnitus Aja of ESBS called “it’s apron”.

The governments insistence on morning and contravention of the universal declaration of human rights article 19 of the UNO, this article states thus, “everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference then seek receive and import information and ideas though any media and regardless of frontiers.

It has been widely acclaimed that the government had to take a monopolistic decision of the mass media precisely electronic media because, powerful and controlled nature of the electronic media.

Also considering that, at local, national and international levels that media are powerful  brokers of information by their very nature and availability, the mass media have been recognizes as “most potent tool in the modern world (Mr. Ihnitus Agu).

This is justified also from the point of view that many government had been overthrown through pen-power. Reference could be made to the defeat of colonialism the exposure of fraud and excesses. Thus this in government has always felt that the pen is righter and decide to control and own the broadest media. Again right to rebuttal: a situation where every individual has a right to the press because everybody is given a chance to defend himself against allegations, express his view and attacker be attached and see it as instruments of propaganda in the hands of successive governments. Mr. Charles Okwsili in his view said the government controls the press because of what he calls “chaos in the atmosphere”. It is believed that a proliferation of the broadcast media could lead to clad in atmosphere.

Nevertheless, Nigerian of the cotemporary time are increasingly decrying government ownership and control of radio and television station because the station are increasingly losing its creditability and respectability.

The era of objectivity stressed factual, accurate balanced, straight and colonization of any sort. As from the1940s to data, objectivity has been under serious fire. It is characterized by the following vizs.

  • The separation of fats from opinion
  • The strive for fairness and balance
  • The presentation of an emotionally detached view of the press among others.

The style lasted for quite some time before the authoritarian control of the mass media by the government was in existence and probably gave way to other style of journalism.

Consequently the ownership and control of the electronic media has not been without some hindrance on the media operations and its integrity. Mr. Maxwelll Ngene is one of this lecture said that government owed media lack creditability and objectivity.

The changing of NUJ, Mr. Osi Ogboso described the caliber of workers that government owned media parade with as “professional learn dogs” he gave an instance when he was assigned to cover “the 2002 governor’s impeachment. According to him he said that the report was fairly and truthfully covered but was killed or buried by the people in the helms of affairs at ESBS. He further described them as “poorly educated editors then reporters. These half baked staff is ill remunerated making them have lane and financial base and thus easy targets for manipulation by the government and its agents.

Following this background therefore the researchers has  resolved to seriously determine the effects of the age long ownership and control of the Enugu state broadcasting services by the interest at the FM arm of the establishment. knowing full well that “A nations press or media system is closely tried its political system because the system of government conceived the system of the press since a nations journalism cannot exceed the limits permitted by the society.


According to “A brief history of ESBS published on the official commission /launching of Enugu state broadcasting service (ESBS) stations, independent layout Enugu  on 20th March 1992.

“What is today known as Enugu state broadcasting service (ESBS) has undergone a great of metamorphosis. It was first opened on October I, 1960 as one of the memorable ceremonies to glamorize the Nigeria attainment of independence and was then called Easter Nigeria broadcasting corporation (ENBC).

At the end of civil war in 1970, the aged and badly over-used ENBC was changed to east central state broadcasting service ECBS.

Following the creation of state in Nigeria the ECBS was changed to Anambra broadcasting service ABS and in 1977 it was modified to Anambra broadcasting corporation ABC divided into two i.e. ABC 1 at ninth mile corner and ABC II at the Hill top station.

In 1978, the federal military government took a decision of taking over all TV stations in the country, the TV arm of the ABC broadcasting outfit became the present NTA channel 8 Enugu.

Simultaneously, in 1981- 1985, the both ABC radio and ATV- so were merged into what was known as ABS without radio station in Enugu and Onitsha.

Consequently, the come to be known as the Enugu state broadcasting services. ESBS with AM and FM studio in 1991.

The Enugu state broadcasting services currently transmit on the following channel and frequencies.

  1. Enugu television (ETV) channel 50 VHF presently called “Star TV.
  2. Radio FM (1) = 585 KHZ in the Medium wave band.
  3. Radio FM (2) = 96.1 MHZ in the FM band.

The ESBS comprises at present a functional radio station transmitting on channel 50 VHF since my study is in the effects of government ownership and control of he radio 2 FM of the ESBS again, the study will concentrated precisely on “ news programme” of the radio 2 FM station.

The reason for the cloze is obvious because news is the greatest programmes that determine the objectivity of any station. Moreover, information is power that shows that a national without appropriate information in darkness that’s one of the reasons for characterizing a nation s the third world or a developing country as a result of the lapse and deficiencies in the information flow.

Similarly, it is vivid that radio is the true mass medium in third world countries because it really reaches the masses. in Nigeria, the use of radio as a source of information who make up the majority of the country’s make up the majority of the county’s population (Okunna 1992).

The radio is enjoying greater popularity especially among the rural population because of its reach and also because of its being earlier to the media scene then the TV; it is affordable and realistic to media goals.

The most pre-eminent position of radio is the ability to bridge language barriers tool for social mobilization motivation sensitizing and knowledge development (Moememka 1991).

If radio enjoy al these FM, radio  enjoys more advantage. Mrs. Modlyn Opara, a one time acting director ESBS radio 2 FN said in her speech on the ESBS conference with then governor that “the FM is mainly for playing music entertainment and advert”, because of the many advantages it enjoys over presently dead. Following the over-riding factors the ESBS exploits the FM for its combined services broadcasts as news and state executives broadcast. On the whole the fm enjoys the following advantages over the AM namely: vizs

  • Freedom, from static noise and disruption
  • Came in equal strength within reception range.
  • It provides understated reception
  • It transmit with greater fidelity
  • It better suited for community and city broadcast.

Besides all these sterling qualities the FM electronic media- Makes great contributions towards societal improvements. It is among others things the source of news information, education, entertainment, opinion leadership conferring status and creating symbolism. The way they did it, no matter the place determine their contributions to national development or otherwise. The government always exploits this medium avenue to sell its political polices and program propaganda to the society. And since the government funds this medium it sets up the – Organizational structure of the management as to control and mange – it the way it likes and he manner it pleases them posits Victor Anyaegbudike in a lecture of radio. Television production and broadcasting in Nigeria (2003).

It is integrity to note that in s much as the station is referred to as the station with the right attitude. Thanks to Luke Mgboo a director/producer of lets talk programs me on ESBS. It is not very accessible to all and sundry it’s accessibility depend on whether one’s view is for or against the government of the day. For most state government. In fact not government like Chimaroke regime, the rule has always been that “those are not for us are against us”. Hence their views had not best find place in the government media (or say megaphone or paramount). The boards of directors, news editors and presenter etc. all these personal are accredited government loyalist who protect the interest of the government always.

Due to the fact that their appointment was made by the government and likewise their salaries they desisted from reporting against the government for fair of to being fire.

Concluding, Mr. Osi Rockfeller Ogboso caped it up by describing ESBS and the government owned media as “ he who plays the pipe dictates the tone,, therefore government in power crippled them loyal who pretends to be  journalist without the call practice, of objectivity which connotes factual fats, fairness and balance and un –opinioned views.


The concept “Effect of government ownership and control of mass media objectivity, is of great importance and indispensable in the life of government and its ethnic. Government did not own and exert control the mass media for its sake but a definite purpose of using it as a megaphone to tell its one story. The way they want to till it.

Most state owned media organization is land locked with creditability and objectivity question for the way they have handled. Information/propaganda dissemination for the government at the expense of the opposition and indeed the people. for this reason media audience is today known to take state owned media message with a pinch of salt. For Marsheal Machuhan once posited that “media is the message”. The problem that necessitated to is research is the need to uncover how government influence on its own megaphone has been able to foster a deride the objective principle of journalism and how it effects the media as a whole and bemuse ESBS FM is a major culprit in this issue.




The media as watchdog of the society has been credited by many roles as analyzed by the prior Harlor Lasswell in 1948 as surveillance of the environment correlation of the parts of society and transmission of social heritage to the general populace.

Every research problem worthy of academic under falling is carried out for a definite purpose.

The purpose of this study includes

  1. To find out how objectivity the ESBS discharge it’s duty in the light of government ownership and control.
  2. To identify ways by which their objectivity has affected the stations status.
  3. To offer suggestions on how government owned media should be handled to achieve letter result.
  4. To re-enforce creditability and objectivity of mass media to the light of future and present journalists.
  5. The researcher is undertaking to make contributions to knowledge to the public.

Notwithstanding, various speeches, studies and researchers done in this problem. This research undertaking is significant for the suspicion; the mass audience has for message disseminated from government owned media.

At the end of this research, it will be useful to all especially mass communication scholars and practitioner it will also be beneficial to government owned media organizations and to private owned media organization. Who are still bedridden by objectivity problem?

  • The study will help to provide adequate insight to meet the changing demands in the dynamic media environment of our society thereby helping media managers to make better management policies.
  • This work, however, will also proffer suggestions in how the media should create awareness on maintaining it’s continued standard

Certain questions were formulated which if answered will ascertain solutions to the problem. They are as follows.

  1. Does the influence of government help in the progress of ESBS.
  2. Does ESBS programmers reflect it’s bias to government or media objectivity
  3. Is government influences in the station helping it to achieve its aim of informing educating and entertaining the audience.
  4. Does the ownership and control five room to media practitioners to operate optimally.
  5. What factors, if any could compel government and private sectors media to pursue their duty to society objectivity.

Hi: The influence of government is hindering the progress of


Ho: The influence of government is not hindering the

progress of ESBS

H2: Government interference in media is ensuring media


Ho: Government interference in media is not ensuring

media objectivity

H3: Government influence on the station is making it lose

Its credibility.

H0: Government influence on the station is not making it

Lose its credibility.

H4: Advertisers are shunning the station

Ho: Advertisers are  not shunning the station

H5: The undue control from government hinders optimal

Performance of media workers.

Ho: The undue control from government does not hinder

Hinders optimal performance of media workers.


The theoretical frame work, on which this study is based on it on the effect of government ownership and control of mass media. On media objectivity different countries process mass media systems that primarily reflects that type of government in place and the overriding political system.  These political systems and their relationship Winn their countries mass media becomes logical given the vital of the mass media in the       society.  (Ndolo 1998) citing Lasswell (1948) wright (1960) and Mcquail (1987) study in function of mass media serves the society thus:

  1. Information: The media provides information about local national and international events and conditions.
  2. Correlation: the media serve as linkage between the individual and the society as a whole by.
  3. Explaining, interpreting and commenting on the meaning of events and information.
  4. Providing support for the established authority and norms.
  5. Socializing member of the society into an identical individual.
  6. Setting the agenda to the society.
  7. Conferring status on individual members or group in society.
  8. Cultural Transmission: This is represents the media ability to communicate norms and values of a society to the consciousness of all 4’s members.
  9. Entertainment: The media provides amusement diversion and means of relaxation.
  10. Mobilization: This function refers to the ability of the mass media to promote natural interest and certain behaviors’ especially during natural crisis of the four theories that classify would media system which includes authoritarianism, libertarianism, and other social responsibility can communist (totalitarianism). Authoritarian theory vividly illustrates the issue of government ownership and control of mass media in Nigeria.  The first mass media came in being in Western Europe under authoritarian government and monarchs that were concerned over the emergence of an ambitious middle class. They were worried over what printed matter might do to arise the people against the media patent or licenses to publish to take control were aimed at presenting the government in power, “but in deeper sense, Wrok Siebet at el: 1959 in Anibueze, 2005 they grew out of a long tradition of authoritarian philosophy from plato who thought the state was safe only in the hands of Wiseman.

However, the libertarian contravenes the ideals of absolute authoritarianism, is another theory which require in this study.  The theory emanate from reflections on freedom of expression. It genesis also took place in Europe.  As the ruler of Europe had feared would happen, printed materials were in forefront of series of democratic revolution in the seventeeth and eighteenth centuries.  These information policies on the philosophy of the Europe enlightenment and the concepts of natural right to man.  Again there was the social responsibility theory, this theory according to Siebert at el came of the philosophy that the press should be free to discharge its duties of surveillance to the environment and others.

The last but not the least is the Soviet Communist Theory.  Many communication scholars and researcher belief in that this theory is an offshoot of the authoritarian theory; this is in light of the fact that both are entrustment used to promote the interest of the state.  The media in a communist state helps to advance the communist standpoint in a classless society. Therefore, the media is expected to be an organ of the communist’s party with the aim of assisting to achieve a perfect communism.

Finally, Ikem Nwosu in his own article suggested that right to rebuttals is another reasons for government ownership of mass media. This is traced to the era of liberating theory were every individual has a right to the press.  it is believed that every individual should be given a change to defend himself against allegation, express his views, attack or be attacked, without these right, there might arise a situation of journalistic authoritarianism which would jeopardize government development and detrimental to peace, as a result government felt that the best way to fight against this situation is to control and own their mass media.


The scope of this study the effect of government owernership and control of mass media on media, objectivity is stream lined to the assessment of some media organization using Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS) as the focus.



The study on the effect of government ownership and control of mass media objectivity obviously is an advanced and diverse topic that should study all the mass media owned by both government and private. More also, different categories of people and prominent politicians to be able to elicit and extracts the factual point as it concerns the topic. But due to some problems of time, fiancé, challenges and getting respondents permits to access relevant information regarding their operation.

Staff felt that divulging such information would be at their own detriment.


  1. Government: Is a body with the power to direct or control the public affairs of a country. It refers to institution or agency of the state responsible for ruling the country.
  2. Objectivity: Is the ability to be factual accurate, balanced, straight and deadpan reporting of events without colouration or sentiment of any sort ie ability to be free from personnel prejudice and impartiality.
  • Mass media: Are devices for moving or disseminating messages across distance and time to accomplish mass communication.
  1. Propaganda: Is one of the tools used in convincing an audience to support a cause, it is a conscious building up of message so as to achieve a pre-determined and
  2. Persuasion: Is a communication that attempt to bring about a voluntary change in judgment so that readers or listeners will accept a belief that they did not hold previously.
  3. Broadcasting: Is the method of transmitting radio, interest or television signals to a number of recipients that belongs to a large group. It also means taking part in a radio or TV programmes.




Conceptual and Operational Definition

  1. 1. Government: Is a body will the power to direct or control the public affairs of a country. It refers to an institution or agency of the state responsible for ruling the country.
  2. Objectivity: Is the ability to be factual, accurate, balances straight and deepen when reporting events without colouration or sentiment of any sort, which is the ability to be free from personal persuasive and imparity.
  3. Mass Media: As devices for moving or disseminating masses across distance and time to accomplish mass communication.




Operational Definition

  1. Propaganda: Is one of the tools used in convincing an audience to support a cause, it is a conscious building up of message, so as to achieve a pre-determined and strong followers.
  2. Persuasion: Is a communication that attempts to bring about a voluntary change in judgment so that readers or listeners will accept a belief that they did not hold previously.
  3. Broadcasting: Is the method of transmitting radio, interest or television signals to a number of people that belongs to a large group. It also means taking part in a radio or TV programme.




DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Administrator (Online)
Hello and welcome. I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.