TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE I
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES x
1.0 CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 3
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 4
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 5
1.6 HYPOTHESES 6
1.7.1 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY 6
1.7.2 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 6
1.8 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 6
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS (KEY WORDS) 7
2.0 CHAPTER TWO 8
2.0.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 FORMS OF PROJECT PLANNING 8
2.2.0 ACCIDENTS 14
2.2.0 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION SITE ACCIDENTS 14
220.127.116.11 CAUSES OF ACCIDENT (GENERAL TO ALL TRADES) 14
18.104.22.168 STATISTICS OF SITE ACCIDENTS 16
22.214.171.124 ACCIDENT PREVENTION / CONTROL MEASURES 19
126.96.36.199 WORKERS COMPENSATION 25
2.3.1 HEALTH AND SAFETY 26
2.3.4 FORMS OF SAFETY AND HEALTH PROBLEMS 30
2.3.5 BASIC SAFETY PRINCIPLES 34
188.8.131.52 SAFETY PROGRAMME OUTLINE 35
184.108.40.206 DAY TO DAY SAFETY 35
2.3.6 CONSTRUCTION REGULATIONS 36
2.4.3 METHOD STATEMENT / CONSTRUCTION
220.127.116.11 CONSTRUCTION PROGRAMMES 40
3.0 CHAPTER THREE 41
3.0.1 RESEACH METHODOLOGY 41
3.1 INTRODUCTION 41
3.1.1 DESIGN OF THE STUDY 41
3.1.2 AREA OF THE STUDY 41
3.1.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY 41
3.1.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 41
3.1.5 INSTRUMENTS USED FOR DATA COLLECTION 43
3.1.6 VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUCTIONS 43
3.1.7 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS 44
4.0 CHAPTER FOUR 46
4.1 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 46
4.1.1 INTRODUCTION 46
4.1.3 ANALYSIS OF SECTION A (GENERAL INFROMATION) 46
4.1.4 ANALYSIS OF SECTION B 50
4.1.5 HYPOTHESES 64
4.1.6 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS 69
18.104.22.168 DISCUSSION PERTAINING TO RESEARCH QUESTIONS 69
22.214.171.124 DISCUSSION PERTAINING TO THE HYPOTHESES 71
5.0 CHAPTER FIVE 74
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
5.1.1 RE-STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 74
5.1.2 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 77
5.1.3 CONCLUSIONS 79
5.1.4 IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY 80
5.1.5 RECOMMENDATIONS 81
5.1.6 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEACH 82
APPENDIX A: CONSTRUCTION REGULATIONS
APPENDIX B: HEALTH AND SAFETY SIGNS AND SYMBOLS
APPENDIX C: QUESTIONNAIRE
LIST OF TABLES PAGE
1 SHOWING INJURIES TO CONSTRUCTION WORKERS
BY TYPES OF ACCIDENTS 17
2 SHOWING ANNUAL REPORTED ACCIDENTS 18
3 SHOWING NAME OF FIRMS FROM AWKA 42
4 SHOWING NAME OF FIRMS FROM ONITSHA 42
5 SHOWING PROFESSION OF THE RESPONDENT 46
6 SHOWING EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS 48
7 SHOWING SEX COMPOSITION 48
8 SHOWING YEARS OF WORKING EXPERIENCE 49
9a SHOWING MEAN RATING OF RESPONDENTS’
OPINIONS ON TYPES OF ACCIDENTS ASSOCIATED
WITH BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES 50
9b SHOWING TYPES OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
10a SHOWING MEAN RATING OF THE RESPONDENTS’
OPINIONS ON THE TYPES OF HEALTH / SAFETY
ASSOCIATED WITH BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
10b SHOWING TYPES OF HEALTH /SAFETY PROBLEMS 55
11a SHOWING MEAN RATING OF THE RESPONDENTS’
OPINIONS ON THE FACTORS THAT CAUSE
CONSTRUCTION PROBLEMS. 56
11b SHOWING FACTORS THAT CAUSE CONSTRUCTION
HEALTH AND SAFETY PROBLEMS 57
12a SHOWING MEAN RATING OF THE RESPONDENTS’
OPINIONS ON HOW THESE PROBLEMS CAN
BE MITIGATED 58
12b SHOWING HOW HEALTH AND SAFETY PROBLEMS
CAN BE MITIGATED. 59
13 SHOWING RESPONDENTS’ RESPONSE ON THE
EFFECT OF PRODUCTION/ CONSTRUCTION
PLANNING OF PROJECTS ON THE NATURE AND
RATE OF ACCIDENTS OCCURRENCE ON A
PROJECT SITE 50
14 SHOWING RESPONDENTS’ RESPONSE ON IF
GOVERNMENT / PROFESSIONAL BODIES CAN PLAY
ANY SIGNIFICANT ROLES ON HEALTH AND SAFETY
MATTERS ON SITES 61
15a SHOWING MEAN RATING OF THE RESPONDENTS’
OPINIONS ON HOW GOVERNMENT /PROFESSIONAL
BODIES CAN PLAY SIGNIFICANT ROLES ON HEALTH
AND SAFETY MATTERS ON SITES 62
15b SHOWING HOW GOVERNMENT /PROFESSIONAL
BODIES CAN PLAY SIGNIFICANT ROLES ON HEALTH
AND SAFETY MATTERS ON SITES 64
16 SHOWING CONTINGENCY TABLE OF RESPONDENTS’
OPINIONS ON THE EFFECT OF OBSERVANCE OF
SAFETY AND HEALTH PROCEDURES ON THE RATE AND
NATURE OF ACCIDENTS ON CONSTRUCTION SITES. 66
17. SHOWING COMPUTATION OF THE VALUE OF CHISQUARE X2 68
The major purpose of this study was how to use good planning of
construction activities to achieve safety, good health, control and
prevention of accidents on building construction sites.
The population of the study consisted mostly of big construction firms in
Anambra State, especially Awka and Onitsha that have had more than 5
years of active construction activities. The sample for the study was 10
reputable construction firms; five from Awka and 5 from Onitsha; which
were drawn using simple random sampling. Five research questions and
two hypotheses were formulated, which guided the study. A 13-item
structured questionnaire was developed, for data collection. Frequency
count/percentages and weighted mean (likert scale) were used to answer
the research questions, while Chi-square was used to test the hypotheses
at 0.05 level of significance. It. Was concluded among others that:
(1) The nature of construction accidents is so diverse and widespread;
that if not well confronted can lead to serious and extensive
consequences. (2) For effective construction accident prevention and
control, monitoring and enforcement instruments are necessary. Based
on the findings and the conclusions drawn from the study,
recommendations were made.
1.0 CHAPTER ONE
The construction industry by the nature of its activities provides
opportunities for varied range of people to achieve their livelihood there from,
through engagement with the different trades that abound in it.
In the course of these engagements, human errors do occur, which
often lead to accidents with safety and health implications.
It is in the light of the issues involved with construction planning,
safety, health and accidents of construction projects that this project topic is
undertaken as a pro – active attempt to use good planning of construction
activities to achieve safety, good health, control and prevention of accidents
on sites, as an integrated approach to project delivery.
It is an attempt that uses good construction planning approach as a
means to achieve the end of site good health, safety, prevention and control of
accidents on sites. The means and end when well ingrained in the psyche of
stake holders in the built environment, with their attendant benefits, will be
tools to be cherished by all involved.
Planning is therefore described as an arrangement for doing or using
something, considered or worked out in advance. Looking at the entire gamut
of planning construction work Nash (1970) stated that: “the best methods
for carrying out the work which is to be done on a structure should be carefully
thought out before the work begins. This is very important as hasty decisions
may be very costly later on”. On the other hand, Howarth (1972) submitted
that: “A planned sequence of operations, and a well deployed labour force,
should result in good production control. This means that with proper planning,
and a system of prepared progress, the greatest possible use can be made of
men, materials and plant. Work control should prevent wasted time, and allow
the fore man to deal more adequately with supervision”.
However, looking at the other aspect of this project topic – accidents
prevention and control – it may be axiomatic to say that the word accident is a
common denominator in any human undertaking, especially wherever safety is
taken for granted.
Taking cognizance of the construction industry’s accidents statistics and
the reality they portray give one the goose flesh and the urge that urgent
remedial approach is needed.
Howarth (1972) stated inter-alia: “For years, there has been an annual
average of over 40,000 reportable accidents and over 200 killed, with higher
percentages than in all other industries. Building workers suffer over three
accidents for every 100,000 hours worked…. Accident in the industry cost the
country millions of pounds a year in: (1) the need of score of hospital beds per
day (ii) a drain on medical staff and services; (iii) a drain on union and
insurance company funds and (iv) a loss of thousand of man days to
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The concept of housing delivery entails design and construction phases. The
nitty –gritty of this delivery centers on the construction stage or building
production management stage.
It is at this stage that the production planning and management take center
stage for the actual production of what has been designed.
The concept of planning is as old as man and has never disappointed its
adherents; hence going by the popular dictum: “He, who fails to plan, plans to
fail.” It is in this wise that the specter of poorly managed production processes,
resulting in the state of accidents on sites with unpleasant implications of-cost
and losses has become a glaring area calling for critical examination of how
good production planning processes can be synthesized with effective
accident prevention and control approach to achieve the goals of building
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Building production management, as a professionally scheduled duty
entails high standard of practice, competence, knowledge, and analytical mind
to be able to fuse all the intricate factors associated with successful project
delivery to clients’ satisfaction and the economy.
The process of successful project delivery is encumbered with planning,
health and safety factors, which need to be collectively addressed in the
course of production processes for cost effective delivery.
In the course of construction, accidents sometimes occur which affect
not only the work men, but also the project itself leading to cost and time
overruns, litigation/compensation claims, project abandonment with
consequential financial losses, and other unforeseen developments.
The construction site is often a chaotic place with an incredibly high
amount of action taking place. Workers and machines move about in a frenzy,
with every one focused on the task at hand. In such an environment,
construction accidents can and do take place.
Statistics indicate that nearly 1000 construction workers are killed each
year while on the job. Many of the deaths or injuries that result from these jobs
can and should be prevented.
Some of the most common types of construction accidents include:
construction site falls, crane accidents, scaffolding accidents, workers being
run-over by operating equipment, electrical accidents, trench collapses, fires
and explosions, and welding accidents. Each of these mishaps can be equally
tragic and equally deadly, and each of these accidents can be completely
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is how to use good planning of construction activities
to achieve safety, good health, control and prevention of accidents on building
construction sites with the following objectives:
To identify health and safety problems associated with building
To find out factors that lead to health and safety problems
To investigate how to avoid accidents in the building construction
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
It is the desire and expectation of every developer to accomplish any
development project without much hitch or draw backs. When an integrated
approach of good production planning and accidents preventive mechanism is
adopted, the out come is quality assurance of the project delivery process.
It is an outcome so much desired by all stakeholders. The problem had
always been: who bells the cat? Who initiates the process that challenges the
status quo of practices that are inimical to the common and collective good?
This study will equally provide the following benefits:
It will lead to more harmonious work environment.
It will show safer and healthier ways to carry out site work.
It will show how good site planning can lessen site accidents.
It will lead to savings in the use of human and material resources.
It will be a factor to arrest cost and time overruns of projects
Its adoption will save the following costs
I. The need of scores of hospital beds per day
II. The drain on medical staff and services.
III. The drain on union and insurance company funds
IV. The loss of thousands of man-days to production.
The following null hypothesis was formulated for the study to be tested at
0.05 level of significance;
HO: The observance of safety and health procedures do not significantly
control the rate and nature of accidents on construction sites
: The observance of safety and health procedures do significantly
control the rate and nature of accidents on constructions sites.
1.7.1 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is focused on the use of production planning approach that
observes safety and health procedures, to curb accidents arising from
execution of production activities on sites within the confines of building
industry. It does not cover high engineering projects like bridges and oil
and gas sector.
1.7.2 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: The following limitations are
inherent in the study.
1 The limitations inherent in the use of questionnaires in terms of
bjectivity, truthfulness and sincerity from respondents are
acknowledged; there is therefore, likelihood of error to occur in
the final evaluation of data
2 The inability of the researcher to cover all of the major towns in
Anambra State, except Awka and Onitsha, due to lack of time;
therefore the findings were based on the data from the two main
1.8 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In view of the aim of this study, the following research questions
are posed to drive the study:
1. what are the types of accidents associated with building construction
2. What are the types of health/safety problems associated with building
3. What are the factors that cause these construction problems?
4. How can these problems be mitigated?
5. Can the observance of health and safety provisions during construction
reduce the rate of accident occurrence?
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS (KEY WORDS)
The following terms are defined as used in this study:
1.9.1 Planning: Oxford advanced learners dictionary defined “plan” as: “An
arrangement to do a set of things in order to achieve something, especially
one that has been considered in detail in advance;
Following from this, planning is therefore the act of arranging the procedure for
carrying out an action to achieve set objectives.
1.9.2 Accident: “An eventful occurrence in a work place that interrupts or
disrupts production activities or processes through loss of time, loss of
resources and injury (fatal or otherwise) consequent upon wrongful and
inappropriate human behaviour and /or inappropriate, faulty or deficient
working environment, design or management (Oyederan, 1989, as quoted by
1.9.3 Health and Safety: Health- conditions of a person’s body or mind (have
poor health or enjoy the best of health).
Safety: – Being safe, not being dangerous or in danger (Hornby 2000).
1.9.4 Management: The act of running and controlling a business or similar
organization (Hornby 2000).
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