TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page iv
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables ix
- Background to the Study 1
- Statement of the Problem 4
- Research Questions 6
- Purpose of the Study 7
- Significance of the Study 8
- Scope of the Study 9
- Limitations of the Study 9
- Definition of Terms 10
- Organization of the Study 11
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Literature review 13
2.2 Theoretical Framework 29
3.1 Research design 31
3.2 Area of the Study 31
3.3 Population of the Study 32
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 32
3.5 Methods of Data Collection 33
3.6 Instruments for Data Collection 34
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument 34
3.8 Validity of the Instrument 35
3.9 Distribution and Retrieval of Instrument 35
3.10 Methods of Data Analysis 35
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Presentation 36
4.2 Analysis of Research Questions 40
4.3 Interpretation of Results 43
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of findings 45
5.2 Conclusion 46
5.3 Recommendation 47
Appendix A 50
Appendix B 51
need to encourage youths’ empowerment training with vigour to be more result oriented at the local
This study gives suitable details of employee participation in decision making and its impact on workers performance (Oguta LGA). It is obvious that most organizations are affected with the problem of employee participation in decision making. This project entails how employees in Oguta LGA service participate in decision making and its impact on workers performance. The significant of the study is stated on for the limited uncovering the reason for the negative participation of employee in decision making and it impacts. Finally, the objectives of the study include among other thing: to define and analyze the concept of employee participation in decision making and its impact on the organization as a whole. To obtain those factors underlying human behaviours, factors that determine how employee participation decision making and also their behaviour under certain conditions. To reveal those factors that prevent him from doing his best. To select employee and their placement will be appraisal a well as finding solution to the negative employee participation decision making and its impacts at Oguta LGA to offer suggestion on how best to make decision.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
When we talk of decision making, we have to bear certain things in mind. Decision making is the role of a leader. Some leaders do not allow subordinates to make decisions (authoritarian leaders). Some leaders go to extent of allowing the subordinates to make all major decisions (Laisser-faire leaders). Yet some other leaders create opportunities for their subordinates to join in decision making (Democratic leaders). Each of the above leadership styles has an implication or effect in organizational performance.
The focus of this study is on the democratic leaders style which allows subordinates participation in decision making. And the aim is to discover the effects of such participations on work performance using Oguta Local Government in Imo State.
Advancement is the study of management with emphasis on the humanistic approach has strengthened the urge to discover and to know more about the individual interest in the organization and how it has contributes to the achievement of organization goal concepts like “participation” when related to performance have attracted the attention of researchers, management practitioners, physiologist and sociologist who devoted their time, money and human resources in trying to discover the relationship between participation in decision making and job performance.
Participation is the mental, physical and emotional involvement of person in group situation that encourages them to make their own contributions towards the achievement of goals and sharing of responsibility. Devis (1981) define it as motivational techniques. Koortz (1983) says the right lend of participation yield both motivational and knowledge valuable. For enterprise success, decision making could be seen as processes of selecting from among alternatives of course action according to certain set criteria. The dynamic of modern organization place a heavy burden on its manager to interpret plans and activities. Managers sometimes see decision making as their central job because they must constantly choose what is to be done, who is to do it, when, where and occasionally how it will be done.
The primary task of managers is to get people to contribute to the activities that will help in achieving the organizational goals and mission. Managers need the assistance of employers in the form of information, suggestion views and ideas from both of information, subordinates in order to function and make decisions that affect the employee and organization goals. Performance entails achieving the goals when required and how required. It could be seen that there has been many identified relationship between participation and work performance some of which centers on the believe that if workers participate in issues concerning them, and their environment, it boosts their morals, feeling of recognition and finally motivates them to increase their performance. The study seeks to make additional contributions to the impact of employee participation in decision making on work performance and also to identify the different level of performance and the different motivational impact of the different levels of participation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Since the concept of participation involved from the field of human relations, it has been misunderstood by many organizations participation therefore is the act of one taking part in something that affects him or her directly or in a special way of delegation in which the subordinates gain control and freedom of choice with respect to his or her responsibility.
Unfortunately, the extent to which participation of workers in decision making is allowed by most managers has been minimal. The problem is that some managers adopt leadership style that does not permit the participation of their employees in decision making. Consequently, such employees are denied the opportunity to contribute their own ideas or provide useful information that can lead to sound decision making.
Such decision making requires a lot of information, the employees or ground whose jobs are mostly affected by decision making based on their experience at work. Employees are likely to support a course of action in which they took part in making them otherwise. None participation of employee in decision making is counter productive in the sense that their moral will be low; on the other hand, employees’ participation in decision making will increase their productivity.
The assumption by some managers that employees will divulge officials secret if allowed to participate in decision making may seem reasonable in principle. While one does not rule out the possibility that employees may lack important secret is allowed to participate in decision making. We cannot equally overlook the overriding advantage of employee participation, the assumption that subordinates are potentially incapable of making useful contributions in decision making not be true. Most subordinates by virtue of their experience in a particular job setting are in a very good position to contribute ideas that will prove very useful in decision making.
As a result of this efficient and effective job performance together with reached goals requires certain and maintenance of an environment by which individual work together in groups towards the accomplishment of common objectives, thus representing a balance group judgment and a more diversified point of view which creates a sense of loyalty and commitment to decision reached.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research seeks to know the different levels of participation and in the process identify the different motivational impact of different levels of participation.
The following research questions will be post to guide the study:
- How does democratic leadership style affect employee performance?
- How does autocratic leadership style affect employee performance?
- How does autocratic leadership style affect employee moral?
- How does laissez faire leadership style affect performance?
1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The study attempts to achieve the following objectives:
- To determine the impact of democratic leadership style on employee performance.
- To determine the impact of democratic leadership style on employee morale.
- To find out how autocratic leadership style affects employees performance.
- To discover how laissez-fair leadership style affects employee performance.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings if this study will guide the management of Oguta L.G.A in formulating appropriate personnel policies. The application of the recommendation of this research will lead to increased employee performance in Oguta Local Government and other local government areas. Furthermore, other researchers also will find this study a useful tool in further research.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work will be restricted only to particular in Oguta Local Government Area in Imo State. This is the decisions organization take that makes employee to behave or perform well in the organization must make positive decision to enable workers enhance their productivity.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Academic enterprises, traditionally encounter some limitations and constraints. This project failed to live this tradition. One of constrains encountered was lack of related materials (Books) on the topic from most of the libraries I went to. Also, I could not obtain the appropriate information needed from the Oguta L.G.A because I was not given free access by the security men. Another constraint was on the questionnaire, the respondents could not complete them as required. I did not use oral interview, because people did not disclose information needed because of the fear of what it will be used for.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Participation: in this research work participation is defined as a special way of delegation in which the subordinates gain greater control, greater freedom of choice with respect to the responsibility. It could be defined as the act of one partaking in something that affects him or her directly.
Decision making: This is defined as an act ion consciously taken or chosen from available alternatives for the purpose of achieving desired results.
Job performance: This is extent to which a worker does his or her job in relation to existing standards.
Employees: These are people employed to work in an organizations.
Effect: The efficient of one thing ort another.
Leadership style: This is authority or behaviour of a leader while performing his or administrative function of planning, organization staffing, evaluating and decision making.
Democratic leadership style: This is the ability of a leader to consult or allow subordinates to participate in the process of making decision.
Laissez-fair leadership style: This is leader whose administrative policy is not definite. He gives the subordinate in decision making.
Autocratic leadership style: Here the leader takes unilateral decision (makes decision alone) and imposes them on the subordinates to implement. They do not trust any other person’s capacity.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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