This work is designed to provide a thorough understanding of political stability in Nigeria, and how good governance enhances political stability. The researcher also chooses Imo State as a case study – the aim of the researcher is to discover the persisting problems of political stability and all the factors that affect good governance. It ensures/covers in details the prospects and basis issues concerning the current election in Nigeria. The method used in writing this is survey techniques which will include questionnaire, news papers and journals. This work also examines the indices of good governance and factors that led to political instability in Nigeria. Finally, this project recurred events completely and accurately.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The history of elections in Nigeria dates back to 1922 when the constitution in operation in the country, when Clifford constitution of 1922 introduced the elective principals. A Hallmark was made in the country in 1923 for the first time following the introduction of the elective principle by the Clifford constitution. Four Nigerians were elected into the Nigerian legislature council, one to represent Calabar and three to represent Lagos. The franchise was limited to about 5,000 adults in Lagos and Calabar with an annual income of hundred pounds each. The election was contested by less than nine candidates and between two quasi-political parties, the Nigerian National Democracy Party (NNDP) and the people’s union.
The election was organized by the colonial government. the election was also free and fair and the conduct was peaceful and orderly. The next important election after the 1959 election which ushered in the constitutional settlement for an independent Nigeria, the first ever direct election covering the country. Three political parties emerged during this period and participated in the election.
The National Council of Nigeria Citizens (NCNC) formerly known as the National Council of Nigerians and Cameroons which was the first modern political party in West Africa was formed in 1914 and led by Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, the Action Group (AG) was formed in 1951 under the leadership of chief Obafemi Awolowo, and the Northern People’s Congress (NPC) was formed in December 1949 under the leadership of Alhaji Ahmadu Bello. In 1959 election, the NPC won 80 seats which the AG won 73 seats. This election was also supervised by the colonial master. It was relatively peaceful and orderly. 1960 – 166, during this period, elections were held on 1961, 1963, 1965, regional elections and 1964/65 federal election. The most crucial elections of 1965, two broad coalitions contested the 1964 federal election. The Nigerian National Alliance (NNA) made up of the Northern People Congress (NNPC) and the Nigeria National Democratic Party (NNDP) a break away of the Action Group (AG), the dominant party in western Nigeria and the United Progressive Grand Alliance (UPGA) made up of the United middle belt congress, the National Council of Nigeria Citizens (NCNC) and the Action Group. The election was rigged and different kinds of electoral malpractices were witnessed. The United Progressive Grand Alliance leaders claimed that many campaigning and that some of them were kidnapped.
1985 – 1993 for the third time in Nigeria’s political history a transition programme aimed at an orderly chance of not just a government but a whole regime type is being consciously and assiduously pursued by an incumbent government. the first and second transition programmes were from colonial regime to an independent democratic regime in the later fifties to October 1960, and from a military dictatorship to a democracy in the late seventies respectively.
Neither attempts at establishing a last democracy succeeded beyond six (6) years. The first attempt lasted from October 1960 to January 1966, while the second lasted from October 1979 to December 1983. It is at this last point that informed the present administration’s decision to introduce a transition programme that is both extensive (its time span is the longest in the history of transition programmes not just in Nigeria but in African continent).
Today, Nigeria is undergoing another transition to civil rule programme and questions bound as to whether the nascent third republic will be a success or failure given in the country’s economic incapacitation, the increasing personification of the downward movement of the people’s social conditions. The unmistakable crisis in the country’s education system, the prevalence of thuggery and electoral malpractices, the recurrence of ethnic religious clashes and the fact that “every good soldier who is advancing in his profession now hopes to end that career in a political office or headship of one civilian institution or the other inter alla.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The essential ingredients of any political system include clear statement of the requirement which citizen must have before he or she is qualified for any elective position, a comprehensive voter’s register and good voting conditions which must ensure that the citizens exercise their franchise without fear of molestation or victimization.
The 1997 general election in Imo State was very important in this case in that being the first stage of the transition to civil rule programme; it could be taken as a test or the extent to which Nigerians were prepared to change their electoral behaviours. For the better and abide by the rules and principles of democratic elections. This is so because from the records available, the election didn’t fulfill the requirement as required by a democratic government.
Moreover, in view of the fact that the first and second republic, politicians were not freely allowed by the military administration for participation in politics, apparently based on he conviction of the government that their roles in the past have been highly unsatisfactory. The questions therefore are did the sponsorship of any of the candidates by the old categories politicians affect the outcome of the elections? Did the electorates base their votes on sentiment or on objectives assessment of candidates? Was the general election in Imo State free and fair? What implications will the outcome of the election have on political stability in Imo State?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this research is to examine the key issues surrounding the political stability in the Imo State government election in the light of candidates contesting on multi-party bases on the voting behaviour of the electorates, the voting process and declaration of results. It is also geared towards pinpointing all these process and at which are
not part of the normal process and as such led
- To find out the causes of political instability in Nigeria.
- The major causes of election rigging in Nigeria
- To know how to blame for poor conduct of election in Imo State.
- To find out possible ways of enhancing political stability in Nigeria.
- To know how to assess election in Nigeria
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions are formulated to guide the researcher on this study.
- What are the major causes of election rigging in Nigeria?
- Do politicians now use money to influence people to vote them?
- Do you agree that poor electoral conduct had led and still responsible for instability in Imo State?
- Does constant influence of politicians during election lead to the loss of so many lives and properly in Imo State?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study political stability through good government in Nigeria using Imo State as a case study is important in two aspects. Firstly, it identifies various forms of electoral amoralities which forms the “caterpillar” of democracy and political instability, secondly, it also analyses the problems as well as provide suggestions to enhance the future conduct of election in the country, al these are useful in the problems of political instability will be decisively backed in order to achieve political stability.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In this study of research of political stability through good governance in Nigeria using Imo State as a case study, the study will be limited to the recently conducted election in Imo State.
- LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
No research work can be carried out without certain constraints either in form of finance or logistics. This encountered by the researcher includes:
- Lack of adequate information from the offices like INEC offices, local government, government house, federal secretariat responsible for the information needed.
- Lack of finance or financial constraints over the work.
- Time limitations to go around and make a comprehensive collection of the materials on the global economic meltdown or financial crisis.
- Other related problems where, the crisis received during this research from the INCE chairman, senators and Imo State House of Assembly.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Political stability: This means a firmly fixed needed and desired policy for growth and development of the policy.
Free and fair election: This refers to the absence of violence in the election stations or polls, the counting of votes in the polls immediately after voting and in the presence of both electoral officer, the representative of contestants and also the law enforcement officers, ensuring that the names of all eligible voters are included in the register of voters and also allowed to exercise their franchise on the electoral day.
Culture: This refers to arts, social, institutions and beliefs of a particular group of people.
Culture organization: This refers to an organized group of people who share the same arts, customs and common beliefs together.
Sponsorship: This refers to the advancing money to candidates with which to run the election directly or indirectly and also giving out gift to electorate so as persuade them to vote for a particular candidate. And also giving candidates advice on how to campaign and lobby for votes and support from the people.
Election outcome: This means the relationship between the political parties and the objective they aim at.
Ezinihitte Mbaise League Associations: This is a cultural organizization in Ezinihitte Mbaise Local Government Area Imo State through which they unite themselves together so as to see to improve the area.
Old politicians: This refers to those politicians who do not any longer crime out directly to struggle for power still has the influential power in politics.
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