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Title Page i
Approval page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Table of Content vi
List of Tables ix
Abstract x
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Objectives of the study 5
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Research Hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the study 7
1.7 Scope of the study 7
1.9 Operational definition of terms 8
2.0 Introduction 9
2.1 Conceptual clarification of Entrepreneurship 9
2.2 Entrepreneurship public policy and economic growth 11
2.2.1. History and development of entrepreneurship in NIGERIA 15
2.2.2 . Policy implications 18
2.2.3. The characteristic and role expectation of an Entrepreneur 18
2.2.4. The role of the entrepreneur 19
2.2.5. Risk and rewards of entrepreneurship in small and medium enterprises 20
2.3. Entrepreneurship and growth 21
2.3.1 The firm and the entrepreneur 21
2.3.2 . Firm life cycle 22
2.4. Theoretical framework of entrepreneurship 23
2.4.1. Stages of small business development 23
2.5. Role of the entrepreneur in business formation and growth 30
2.6. What is small business 33
2.6.1. Advantage of small business 34
2.6.2 Disadvantages of small business 35
2.6.3 Roles of small and medium scale enterprises in developing our economy 35
2.7. Challenges of self-employment for Nigerian graduates 36
2.8. Challenges of entrepreneurship/SME‟s in NIGERIA 39
3.1. Introduction 43
3.2. Research design 43
3.3. Population of study 44
3.4. Sampling Technique 44
3.5. Research instrument 45
3.6. Data analysis 45
4.1. Introduction 47
4.2. Demographic presentation of data 47
4.3. Analysis of research question 48
4.3.1. Interpretation of result 52
4.4 Hypothesis test 54
4.4.1. Regression analysis 55
5.0. Introduction 59
5.1. Summary of findings 59
5.2. Conclusion 60
5.3. Contribution to knowledge 60
5.4. Recommendation 60
5.5. Suggestion for further study 61
Table.4.1. Demographic presentation of data 47
Table.4.2. Lack of support for entrepreneurial 48
Table.4.3. Entrepreneurial development has contributed to ensuring of unemployment 48
Table.4.4. Government policies 49
Table.4.5. Basic amenities are provided by the Government 49
Table.4.6. Entrepreneurial development has been a tool for checkmating 50
Table.4.7. Hidden potentials of Nigeria citizen 50
Table.4.8. Platform for combination of resource by Nigerians 50
Table.4.9. Organized program by Government 51
Table.4.10. Increase in small and medium scale business 51
Entrepreneurial development is a major factor towards ensuring that a country experience growth
in terms of employment and self-dependability. Entrepreneurial development has also led to
employment generation, growth of the economy and sustainable development. Entrepreneurship
is supposed to be a bail out for economic stagnation with reference to creating job
opportunities, this is , combating unemployment in an economy .Objective of this study is to
know whether or not entrepreneurial development is truly a strategic tool towards enhancing
Nigeria economy and also how it has affected the economic growth using idumota Market in
lagos as a case study.
The use of drafted questionnaire was used to testing hypothesis and discussion of findings .For
dis study 70(100%) questionnaire was distributed, but was able to retrieve 65 (93%). Which is
still valid.
Over the years, it has being proven from other research work and in developed countries that
Entrepreneurial development is a major factor toward ensuring that a country experience growth
in terms of employment and self-dependability. Economic displacement is one of the external
forces that influence the development of entrepreneurship (kuratko, 2009). This is why Alam and
Hossan (2003) see entrepreneurship as playing a key role in the process of economic
development through creation of employment, increasing investment and consumption in a
nation. In similar vein, Chigunta (2001) notes that entrepreneurship has been receiving
increasing recognition as a source of job creation, empowerment for the unemployed and
economic dynamism in a rapidly globalizing world. Also in the word of Garavan and O’Cinneide
(1994) in their contributions maintain that entrepreneurship is often used for developing
enterprising people and inculcating an attitude of self-reliance using appropriate learning
processes. In Nigeria before the advent of colonial government, unemployment was a rare
phenomenon because the people were highly entrepreneurial and productively engaged in
subsistence jobs and farming. This entrepreneurial engagement is prevalent in Yoruba land of
western Nigeria, Hausa land of the northern Nigeria, and among the Igbo people of eastern
It is on record that Yoruba and Hausa ethnic groups are great entrepreneurs in pre and post
independent Nigeria. The Igbo ethnic group particularly is recognized internationally for its
culture of entrepreneurship and enterprise development (Dana, 1995). This is why Ananaba
(1969) asserts:
“The economy of the various states which make-up modern Nigeria was basically a
subsistence economy and customs had established the practice that people serve their
parents, village heads and the community without remuneration. On a given day, people
went and work for a particular individual1. Through economy the higher would be the
poverty level and associated welfare challenges.
Entrepreneurial development has also led to employment generation, growth of the economy and
sustainable development. The current number of colleges and universities offering small business
management and entrepreneurship development programme has grown from one university in
1947 to over 1600 in the 1990s (Solomon and Fernald, 1991; Solomon et al, 1994; Solomon, et
al, 2002).
White and Kenyon (2000) also found a „flourishing youth enterprise culture‟ in the United
Kingdom among young entrepreneurs aged 18-24 years. In Zambia, it was show that 25% of the
youth are self-employed (Chigunta, 2001). Most of these young people, especially younger
youth, tend to be concentrated in marginal trading and service activities. Findings in Ghana of
small scale enterprises reveal that young people owned almost 40 percent of the enterprises
(Osei, Baah-Nuakoh, Tutu, and Sowa,1993).
Similarly, research in South Africa suggests that the probability of self-employment among
young people rises with age (Chigunta, 2001). When Nigerians especially unemployed youth are
mentored and provided the needed resources and enabling environment for business start-ups,
they will economically be engaged thereby shunning the illegal acts of hostage-taking,
kidnapping, bombing and vandalism and homelessness.
According to Groves (1997), in Nickels, McHugh, and McHugh (1999), job-creating power of
entrepreneurs can be worked at of some great American entrepreneurs from Du Point in 1802 to
Avon in 1886 and Bill Gates to Ted Turners in the recent times and also in Nigeria we have the
likes of Alico Dangote, Mike Adenuga, Jimoh Ibrahim etc who have stood out over the years as
a result of entrepreneurial spirit in them as they started small but today they are people that
everyone wants to reckon with and not just in Nigeria but all over the world.
Small and Medium Scale Enterprises often owned by entrepreneurs are sub-sectors of the
industrial sector which play crucial roles in industrial development (Ahmed 2006). Also,
following the adoption of Economic reform programme in Nigeria in 1981, there have been
several decisions to switch from capital intensive and large scale industrial projects which was
based on the philosophy of import development to Small and Medium Scale Enterprises which
have better prospects for developing domestic economy, thereby generating the required goods
and services that will propel the economy of Nigeria towards development.
It is based on this premise that Ojo (2009), argued that one of the responses to the challenges of
development in developing countries particularly, in Nigeria, is the encouragement of
entrepreneurial development scheme. Despite the abundant natural resources, the country still
finds it very difficult to discover her developmental bearing since independence. Quality and
adequate infrastructural provision has remained a night-mare, the real sector among others have
witnessed downward performance while unemployment rate is on the increase. Most of the poor
and unemployed Nigerians in order to better their lots have resorted to the establishment of their
own businesses. Consequently, Entrepreneurship is fast becoming a household name in Nigeria.
This is as a result of the fact that the so called white collar jobs that people clamors for are no
longer there. Even, the touted sectors (Banks and companies) known to be the largest employer
of labour are on the down-turn following the consolidation crisis and fraudulent practices of the
high and mighty in the banking sector which saw to it that banks like Oceanic, Intercontinental,
Fin-bank cease to exist.
Since the office jobs that people desire are no longer there for the teeming population, and the
few ones that succeeded in getting the jobs are thrown out as a result of the factors identified
above, the need for the government and the people to have a rethink on the way-out of this mess
became imperative. Hence, the need for Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) became a
reality as a means of ensuring self-independent, employment creation, import substitution,
effective and efficient utilization of local raw materials, reducing rural urban migration and
contribution to the economic development of our dear nation (Nigeria).
According to Emmanuel, Oni and Daniya (2012) benefits of Small and Medium Scale
Enterprises cannot be achieved without the direct intervention of the government and financial
institutions and this is why over the years a number of policies have been formulated by the
government with a view to developing Small and Medium Scale Enterprises. For example, the
Nigerian government under the then leadership of Chief Olusegun Obasanjo promulgated microfinance policy and other regulatory and supervisory frame work in 2005 and this was done in
order to see to it that small and medium scale business enterprise strive.
Entrepreneurship is supposed to be a bail out for economic stagnation with reference to creating
job opportunities that is, combating unemployment in an economy. But Nigeria as a country is
still faced with increasing unemployment rate in the sense that most of its graduate are without
job and this propel the researcher to find out what the challenge is despite the effort of the
government towards ensuring that hiding skills are discovered.
In view of the above problem, this study is intended to critically appraise and analyse the
operating environment and circumstances of SMEs in Nigeria with a view to actually identifying
why they (SMEs) are not playing the vibrant and vital roles in the Nigerian economy as they
(SMEs) does in other economies such as USA, India, South Africa which has so many
similarities with Nigeria in terms of population and other demographic variables.
To know whether or not entrepreneurial development is truly a strategic tool towards enhancing
Nigeria economy and also how it has affected the economic growth using Idumota Market in
Lagos as case study.
I. To show the rate at which entrepreneurial development has affected the Nigeria
Economic Growth.
II. To reveal the benefit of entrepreneurial development toward ensuring that the
unemployed are gainfully employed.
III. To determine the crucial importance of entrepreneurship as a tool for combating
increased crime rate such as kidnapping, bombing, robbery in Nigeria by making people
IV. To ascertain the present level of awareness of entrepreneurship development and its
impact on the purchase of locally made goods.
The research question covers all aspect of the study, and it is used to draw valuable information
and details about Entrepreneurial development using Idumota market in Lagos as case study.
I. To what extent will entrepreneurial development have effect on Nigeria Economic
II. Does benefit exist on entrepreneurial development toward ensuring that the unemployed
are gainfully employed?
III. Is entrepreneurship an important tool for combating increased crime rate such as
kidnapping, bombing, robbery in Nigeria?
IV. What is the present level of awareness of entrepreneurship development on the purchase
of locally made goods?
Oloyede (2002) defines hypothesis as a tentative or testable or verifiable statement about the
relationship between two or more variables. It is the expected outcome of a study.
The two variables which will be measured in this study are:
a. Dependent variable which is Economic Growth in Nigeria as regard employment or
unemployment rate.
b. Independent variables which is the entrepreneurial development as regard creativity,
innovation and establishment of small and medium scale businesses.
The following hypotheses shall be tested in this study:
H0: Entrepreneurial development has no significant effect on the economy development of an
H1: Entrepreneurial development has a significant effect on the economy development of an
Previous studies on this research topic have being carried out as to how entrepreneurship affects
the economy growth in terms of it gross domestic product (GDP) but not much has been done on
Entrepreneurial development on Nigeria Economy development with regards to employment or
unemployment rate, purchasing of locally made goods, reduction of crime rate using Idumota
market in Lagos State as its case study.
i. This work becomes important since it will expose individuals on the effectiveness on
entrepreneurial development on youth mostly.
ii. This research will also identify and through more light on how entrepreneurial
development will contain crime rate among the youth as well caused by unemployment.
iii. Recommendation to be proffered will help in reducing the present tension and fear of
unemployment and crime rate.
This study will examine the Effect of entrepreneurial Development on Economic development in
Nigeria, using Idumota market in Lagos State as a case study. This study will be bringing out the
various opportunities, chances and advantages that the small and medium scales enterprise had
gained over the years with respect to its employment rate thereby reducing crime rate directly or
indirectly, encouraging purchase of locally made product looking at a period of 1990 to 2013.
Entrepreneurial development
Small and medium scale enterprise
Economy development
Crime rate
Locally made product
Unemployment rate


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