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Water is one of the most important substances on earth. All plant and animals must have water to survive. If there is no water there would be no life on earth. Disease causing germs and chemicals find their way into water supplies when this happens, the water becomes polluted. The principal objective of this research work is to asses the impurities found  in domestic and industrial wastewater. Other objectives are to asses the presence and absence of organic, inorganic and micro-organism. And also to asses the reused potential of the waste water, in order to determine the most suitable process for it’s treatment before discharging to the environment,


The processes involved in determining these impurities are physical, chemical and biological analysis. Most of the equipment used to achieve the objectives and the accuracy of this work is digital equipments which include C214 multiparameter bench photometer, COD reactor, pH electrometric meter, spectrophotometer, conductivity meter and BOD track. Moreover, these equipments were used to analysed the various parameters presents in industrial and domestic wastewater and the following results were obtained respectively; pH value (10.98, 8.5.), hardness (18mg/l, 15.6mg/l, phosphate (0.678mg/lm, 1.02364mg/l), Nitrogen (1.958mg/l, 2.365mg/l), temperature (300c, 260c), dissolve oxygen (2.8mgl/, 2.5mg/l), biochemical oxygen demand (14.0mg/l, 16.8mg/l), dissolve solid (3255mg/l, 3120mg/), suspend solid (1735mg/l, 1613mg/l), total solid (4990mg/l, 4733mg/l), conductivity (20ums, 18ums) sludge settelability (41%, 37%), turbidity (292NTU, 250NTU).


Detail analysis of this research project work has aid the society in exposing the importance of analyzing this impurities found in wastewater, which bring solution to the causes of fouling of boilers and process equipment in the industries. Hence, this work will also enlightened the society at large on the effect of discharging untreated wastewater to the environment, which causes death of aquatic animals, destruction of ecosystem, disease and disruption of food chain.





Title Page                                                                       ii

Letter of Transmittal                                                       iii

Certification/Approval                                                    iv

Dedication                                                                      v

Acknowledgment                                                  vi

Abstract                                                                          vii


1.1     Background of the study                              1

1.2     Statement of the Problem                             2

1.3     Purpose/Aim/Objectives of the study            2

1.4     Scope and Limitation of the study                          3

1.5     Method of Research                                              4

1.6     Significance of the study                              5


Literature Review                                                 6


3.0     Methodology                                                        59

3.1     Collection of Sample                                             59


4.0     Result  Analysis                                                    72

4.1 Result Obtained from Analysis                                  72

4.2     Result Analysis                                                     73


5.1     Discussion                                                            94

5.2     Conclusion                                                  98

5.3     Recommendations                                       100


Appendix I

Appendix II

Apendix III









Water, one of the abundant compound found in nature is recovering approximately three fourth of the surface of the earth. Over 97% of total quantity of water is in the ocean and other over 2% is tied up in polar ice caps and glaciers and in atmosphere and as soil moisture, which is accessible.


Industrial and domestic water supplies often contain dissolved minerals, gasses bad smells and unsightly appearance that are objectable to the user and equipment and society in general. Usually there problem can be easily corrected by the use of water treatments. Frequently there can be several methods of correcting a given problems. The selection of the type of equipment and treatment depends on the seventy of the problem the amount of attention the user/home owner desires to give the equipment, the cost of the equipment performance.


It is very good idea to never undergo any circumstance select or install equipment on a private or public water supply without first estimate the degree of impurities in the water with the set standard from WHO (World Health Organization) for safety sake.


Amount of impurities in water is a major global problem which require on going evaluation and revision of water resources policy at all level include industrial and domestic water it has been identified that 14,000 people suffered various disease due to impure water consumption, 700 million in the whole  world has no assess to drinkable water, 1000 India Children die of diarrhea sickness every day and some equipment are abandon for long time due to accumulation of impurities from water which affect the productivity of the nation and world in general and also environment for instance in China and other countries.



Thus, this research project is designed to asses impurities in industrial and domestic waste water, these impurities may include physical, chemical and biological which may interfere with subsequent raised of the waste water.


The purpose of this research project is to:

  • Asses the impurities found in waste water.
  • Asses the reused potential of a waste water and to determine the most suitable type of operation and process of its treatment.
  • Determine the bacteriological statue of waste water.
  • Assess the presence and absence of organic, inorganic and even micro-organism in waste water.
  • Determine the physical, chemical and biological properties found in waste water especially industrial and domestic waste water.

The scope of the study was to understand the general approach and methodology involve in assessing and estimation of degree of impurities in domestic and industrial waste water. Basically, using chemical, physical and biologically analysis. In determine all the pollutant in waste water and comparing them with recognized standard such as World Health Organization (WHO).

The major limitation of the study is the general unwillingness of industries in the disclosure of important information, unco-operative attitude of the working samples and time constraint was a limiting factor that proved a stumbling block for the smooth conduct of the research work.


The method of this research were achieved by carrying out some primary and secondary treatment and estimations of impure water. In some industries and domestic wastewater. The estimation used to characterized impure water varies from price, qualitative physical determination, biological determination and chemical determination of amount of impurities in both industrial and domestic waste water. Other research method includes.

  1. Internet: This involved search of information through different websites such as goggle.
  2. Use of textbook: Book written by different authors such as Waste Water Engineering Fourth edition by Metcalf and Eddy; Industrial Chemistry Including Chemical Engineering Sixth edition by B. K. Sharms.
  • The use of Literature Work from notable authors.
  1. The use of practical/laboratory activities.
  2. The WHO standard guideline for water.



The significance of the assessing of impurities in waste water is that the public health must remain the primary objective of waste water management. Thus waste water containing polluting substance mainly in solution such as electroplating industry, the amount of impurities depend on the type of industries which is generally expressed in terms of parameters such as pH, suspended solid, total dissolve, BOD, COD etc. It should also be noted that modern industrial waste water and domestic waste water may also contain radioactive substance, explosives, grease and oil, higher BOD, highly acidic or basic etc.


Thus, this research work will be beneficial for domestic and industrial uses (society in general).


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