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The sustainability of infrastructure demands an attention. One of the ways to achieve this is the adoption of maintenance as essential practice. The level of this practice among various users demands urgency for policy formation. The study examined the maintenance practice among the users of residential buildings in Nigeria. The study data were collected through questionnaire administered on the users of residential buildings in the study area. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical tools. The study found out that all respondents carried out one form of maintenance activities to other. Majority does not have maintenance manual and economic is the major factor that affects the practice of maintenance among users of residential buildings. The study recommends a need for advocacy, policy and awareness on the essence of maintenance as a practice for national sustainability.







Table of content

Chapter one

  • Introduction

1.1       Background of the study

1.2       The Statement of research problem

1.3       aims and objective

1.4       Justification for the study

1.5       scope of the study

1.6       Research methodology

1.7       limitation of the study

1.8       definition of key term

chapter two

2.1       Introduction

  • literature Review

2.2       Definition of technical Term

2.3       Critical for Housing Quality Evaluation

2.4       socio-cultural issues in housing

2.5       INDICATORS FOR evaluating housing quality

2.6       causes of environmental degeneration

2.7       characteristics of environmental degeneration

2.8       need for affordable housing


  • case study/study area

3.1       a brief background of osogo

chapter four

  • Data Presentation and analysis

4.1       Data Analysis

chapter five

5.0       Summary of Findings, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1       Summary of Findings

5.2       Conclusion and recommendations





Housing is defined as “the process of providing a large number of residential buildings on a permanent basis with adequate physical infrastructure and social amenities, (services) in planned, decent, safe, and sanitary neighbourhoods to meet the basic and special needs of the population” (Federal Ministry of Work and Housing, 2002 in Kuroshi and Bala, 2005). Adequate housing therefore should provide protection from the elements, minimize the risk of disease and injury, and contribute to the physical, mental and social wellbeing of the occupants. Inadequate housing according to Neutze (1998) in Australian Bureau of Statistics (2006) can pose serious health risks.

Studies have shown that many residents of urban areas in developing countries live in inadequate housing and in neighbourhoods that lack the basic requirements of liveable environments (Dung-Gwom 2007, 2008; Rojas 2000; McLeod, 2001, 2003). Ooi and Phua  (2007) have observed that most cities in developing world have become centres where vast numbers of people compete for the most basic social services and infrastructural facilities: for a room within reach of employment with an affordable rent, or vacant land on which a shelter can be erected without fear of eviction; for places in schools; for medical treatment for health problems or injuries, or a bed in a hospital; for access to clean drinking water; for a place on a bus or train; and for a corner on a pavement or square to sell some goods—quite apart from the enormous competition for jobs.

Serious challenges continue to exist in urban settlements ranging from scarcity of public services, marked social inequalities in habitat conditions, social and spatial segregation, inequality, poverty, unemployment and increased economic vulnerability, environmental degradation, complexities in the governance structures for urban environmental service provision, pollution, and vulnerability to technological and natural disasters (UN Commissions of Sustainable Development, 2004).  . In recent times, there has been a growing concern on the deteriorating state of housing in most urban areas of the developing nations. Consequently, the need for a decent and adequate shelter has long been an issue requiring urgent global attention. Since shelter constitutes one of man’s basic needs, it does have a profound impact on the health, wellbeing, social attitudes and economic productivity of the individual. However, it has been pointed out that residential quality and the quality of life are two variables of the same equation. Thus, the quality of housing, being basically an important health element, affects the well-being of the people, their productivity, manner of living and the decencies of their lives. Significantly, good quality housing provides the foundation for stable communities and social inclusion. Previous research has established that a positive correlation exists between the quality of life and the comfort, convenience and visual appeal of housing. Good quality housing is therefore essential to planning..

Existing realities have however indicated an apparent variation in housing characteristics across different regions. The consequences of adaptation and restructuring have resulted into differences in housing quality in different communities. This problem of differential housing quality is compounded by the very rapid urban growth. However, studies have shown that the provision of appropriate housing, particularly for the urban poor constitutes a major challenge to development in most African countries and developing nations’ at large. Despite increasing emphasis on the need to improve housing, particularly within the urban areas of the less developed countries (LDCs), a high proportion of the urban population are deprived of access to good quality housing. Going by a UN-Habitat estimate, more than one billion of the world’s city residents live in low quality housing, mostly in the sprawling slums and squatter settlements in developing countries. The reality is that this urban housing scenario has adverse implications on the general wellbeing of the people and portends severe danger to the socioeconomic and physical development of the nations at large.

In Nigeria, like in other developing nations, the provision of housing has been a major concern for some time. Access to decent and good quality housing has posed serious challenge to sustainable growth and development. While there has been an increasing demand for additional housing stock in the urban areas, the condition and overall quality of the existing stock falls short of the expected standard. Consequently, the urban house forms accommodated extended families living with many inconveniences while spatial congestion and infrastructure overloads cause problem in living comfort.

Considering the gravity of the housing problems and its effects on the wellbeing of the people and the nation at large, there is the need for housing improvements in our cities, and this is predicated on the appreciation of the essence of the house within the context of human habitation. There is no doubt, that housing remains a basic human need. Its quality, cost, and availability are crucial to individual’s quality of life. Also, the location, planning, layout and design make an important contribution to community spirit and identity, and are significant components of the social dimension of sustainable development

In Nigeria and other developing countries, the use of inputs from human values in housing design and development has been negligible. Yet, such inputs are very important in providing useful clues for community planners and urban administrators in allocating resources for the improvement of the overall well-being of the society. The input of studies such as this is required to serve as feedback to guide in the formulation of appropriate housing improvement policies. By positing the case of Osogbo Township, the study intends to examine the quality of housing as well as identify any variation in the pattern of housing quality in Nigeria.






It has been asserted that large scale housing deficiencies and poor social and residential environments in forms of slums and squalors characterize most urban centres in the emerging nations of Africa, Asia and Latin America. The absence and non-consideration of the Socio cultural differences among others of various subcultures by housing developers and planners are major reasons adduced for these deficiencies. Rather, the planning practices and urban rehabilitation strategies of the developed nations are exported and adopted in majority of our cities. Hence majority of these renewal and housing projects have failed from achieving its objectives (Onibokun, 1985). In Nigeria for instance, House built before the pre-colonial period were noted to be somehow crude, primitive and lacked geometric precision, yet were done to achieve shelter desirability, comfort, convenience and socio-cultural relevance to the users.

Then the concept of Housing and the relevance of socio-cultural factors to housing as defined and documented by many authors and researchers (Rapoport, 1969; Muller, 1984; Gyuse, 1993; Gur, 1994; Godwin, 1997) could be well appreciated and understood as people built houses to fulfil and meet their socio-cultural needs and relevance. Unfortunately, the present day housing situation in majority of Nigerian cities could not justify the above realities rather, is in a crisis state and characterized by numerous inadequacies and unhealthy environment in the forms of slums, squatters and squalors. A phenomenon described by Godwin (1997) as “sub-human and sub-standard.” The involvement of indigenous housing developers; architects, planners and government agencies in housing provision have not yielded any desirable effect in solving the housing crisis. The problem lies in the absence, neglect and non inclusion of the relevant socio-cultural values and preferences among others of the target population to housing designs and development. Using Oshogbo township as a case in point, the paper aims at demonstrating that household size (among other factors) of the different subcultures and target population is an important socio-cultural factors that could affect the quality and outcome of housing and urban development schemes in our cities. Hence the need to consider its relevance by decision – makers and planners with respect to housing development programmes.


1.3     Aim and Objectives

The aim of the study intends to examine the quality of housing as well as identify any variation in the pattern of housing quality in Osogbo.

The specific objectives of this study include the following;

(a) To generate the conventional (housing expenditure to income ratio and shelter poverty) housing affordability indices for Nigeria.

(b) To modify these conventional affordability indices into more appropriate    housing affordability measurement indices.

  1. c) To recombine these modified indices into a composite aggregate housing

affordability index.

(d) To model aggregate housing affordability in the study area based on household income, housing expenditure and household size.

(e) To determine and compare the residential housing affordability across different socio-economic groups, housing tenure groups and States in the study area.

(f) To determine to what extent household income, non-housing expenditure and housing expenditure influence the differences in aggregate housing affordability of socio-economic groups, housing tenure groups and States in the study area.

  1. g) To examine the housing policy implications of findings in the study area


1.4     Justification of the study

Historically, Housing unit is treated as product hence the need for quality if it is to pair well and perform desirably in the market, but quality in construction industry suffers significant difficulty as it passes through extreme pressure driven by cost minimization rather than value maximization. Research has shown that 75% of urban housing is situated in slum conditions (UNDN, 1988), and indeed the quality of the housing is poor and clearly an affront to human dignity (Olotuah, 1997; Agbola and Olatubara, 2003). As part of effort to increasing qualitative housing for the masses in the country, the Federal Government in 2004, pledged to adequately fund research pertaining to the manufacture and the use of local materials in the sector. With aim of providing 40,000 houses, with at least 1,000 per state before year 2007. Housing delivery in Nigeria is provided by either the Government or Private sector, but despite Federal Government access to factors of housing production, the country could at best expect 4.2% of the annual requirement. Substantial contribution is expected from other public and private sectors. It should be acknowledged that private sector developers account for most of urban housing (FOS, 1983). The production of housing in Nigeria is primarily the function of the private market; approximately 90% of urban housing is produced by private developers. Due to housing demand created by rural- urban migration, which account for 65% of urban population growth, the fixed supply of urban land, and inflation of rental and housing ownership cost (taylor, 2000). Unfortunately, the private sector is saddled with numerous problems which make supply always fall far short of demand and lower production quality (Nubi, 2008).

The problem of qualitative housing has been a concern for both the government and individuals. Appreciating these problems, both public and private sector developers make effort through various activities to bridge the gap between housing supply and demand, but the cost of building materials, deficiency of housing finance arrangement, stringent loan conditions from mortgage banks, government policies amongst other problems  have  affecting  housing  delivery  significantly  in  Nigeria ( Raji, 2008). With different Policies and user solutions that are abound for the purpose of reducing quantitative housing deficiency. It could be possible to solve the problem if housing were used only for shelter needs. However, in addition to serving as a shelter, housing is also a produced commodity, consumer good, assurance for families, means used for reproducing social relations and an investment tool protecting the value of money against inflation. Moreover, it is important that house is a building block in its relations with its environment, mutual interaction and increasing the quality of its environment when it is considered as a part of the city. In this context, it can be accepted that a large housing stock is available today as a result of new presentation forms and production processes with a high volume of housing production. However, the existence of this stock shows that the housing policies are planned depending mostly on production.

1.5     Scope of the study

          The scopes examine different factors contributing to construction of residential building in different residential areas in Osogbo. These include the client, consultants, contractors, sub-contractors and end-users whose individual and collective level of compliance to quality standards of residential building.

1.6     Research Methodology

The data used in this research were derived from the field work by the researcher. “Evaluating the pattern of residential quality in Osogbo.” Osogbo was divided into three areas of residential development based on the pattern of city growth: the traditional core area, (zone A), intermediate area (between the core and the outskirts (zone B) and the periphery/ newly developed area (zone C). Residential districts existing within Osogbo were stratified into each of the zones identified. Sampled areas were selected randomly from each of the zones. Consequently, Oja Oba was selected from the core, part of Alekuwodo and Ayetoro areas were selected from the intermediate zone and Otaefun/Kola-Balogun area was selected from the periphery/newly developed zone The selection of houses for sampling was by systematic method; every fifty house was picked along each street or lane in all the areas. One household head was sampled in every house selected. Considering the 1991 estimated population figures for Oshogbo; the core area has about 1,882 houses, the intermediate area has 1,729 houses while the periphery has about 1,971 houses.

Consequently about 96, 90 and 220 houses were sampled from zone A, zone B and zone C residential areas respectively. A total of about 200 household heads were sampled during the questionnaire survey out of a total of 270 questionnaires administered.

1.7     Limitations of the Study

It is recognized that, in some ways any research work would have limitations. For this research, there is little published work relating to pattern of residential quality in Nigeria. In the process of understanding this study, there are number of limitations which are, lack of enough time to meet with the landlords or who are always on the move and some landlords does not reside in their house. Also, the time lag between collection of information, attending lectures, test, assignment and financial constraint of the researcher has led to incomprehensiveness of this write up.


1.8     Definition of key Terms

Housing is however an issue that touches on the life of individuals as well as that of the nation; a great importance is therefore ascribed to the role it plays in engendering human comfort by both nature and society. This is why Eldredge (1967) concludes that housing represents a bundle of goods and services which facilitate and enhance good living; and a key to neighbourhood quality and preservation. Likewise, Agboola (1998) notes that housing is a combination of characteristics which provide a unique home within any neighbourhood; it is an array of economic, social and psychological phenomena. In other words, housing could be seen as a multidimensional package of goods and services extending beyond shelter itself.

The definition of housing quality embraces many factors which include the physical condition of the building and other facilities and services that make living in a particular area conducive. The quality of housing within any neighbourhood should be such that satisfies minimum health standards and good living standard, but should also be affordable to all categories of households (Okewole and Aribigbola, 2006).


Residential area

A residential area is a land use in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas. Housing may vary significantly between, and through, residential areas. These include single-family housing, multi-family residential etc. Zoning for residential use may permit some services or work opportunities or may totally exclude business and industry



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