TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – — i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – -iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – -iv
Table of Content – – – – – – – – – –v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study – – – – – – – – 1
Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – – 5
Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – – 5
Significance of the Study – – – – – – – – 6
Scope of the Study – – – – – – – 7
Research Questions – – – – – – – – 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual Framework – – – – – 10
Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – – 22
Empirical Studies – – – – – – – – – 26
Summary of Literature Review – – – – – – – 31
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
Research Design – – – – – – – – 33
Area of the Study – — – – – – – – 33
Population of the Study – – – – – – – – 33
Sample Techniques and Size – – – – – – 34
Instrument for data Collection – – – – – – 34
Validity of Instrument – – – – – – – – 34
Reliability of Instrument – – – – – – – – 34
Method of Data Collection – – – – – – – 35
Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – – 35
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
Presentation of Data – – – – – – – – 36
CHAPTER FIVE:- DISCUSSION, SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION
Discussion of Findings – – – – – – – – 45
Conclusions – – – – – – 46
Implication of the Study – – – – – 47
Recommendations – – – – – – – – 48
Limitations of the study – – – – – 48
Suggestion for further Studies – – – – – – – 48
Summary of Findings – – – – – – – – 48
References – – – – – – – – 50
Appendix A – – – – – – – – 58
Appendix B – – – – – – – – 60
Appendix C – – – – – – – – 61
Appendix D – – – – – – – – 62
Appendix E – – – – – – – – 65
The purpose of the study is the extent of the use of audiovisual materials in teaching and learning of Mathematics in Oji River Local Government Area, Enugu State. The population of the study consisted of 1668 students of four public secondary schools and fifteen mathematics teachers. The sample was drawn using simple random sampling technique, out of 11 public secondary schools in Oji river local government Area, 4 schools were randomly selected for the study, Fifty (50) students from each school were selected and 15 teachers making it a total of 215 as the sample size. Three research questions were formulated. The data were collected using questionnaire and observation. Validation of the instrument was face validity. Validation was made by 2 experts in measurement and evaluation and mathematics from Godfrey Okoye University in Enugu State. The questionnaires were administered to the students and mathematics teachers and were collected by the researcher. The reliability of the instrument was tested using Cronbach’s Alpha with the result 0.9 which shows that the instrument was reliable. The data were analysed using mean for research question and t test calculation for testing the hypothesis. Findings from the analysis showed that audiovisual materials in teaching and learning of mathematics are not available in some schools in oji river local government area in Enugu state, it is also observed that the extent to which audiovisual materials are used in teaching and learning of Mathematics is low in schools, it also reveals that female teachers effectively use audiovisual materials in teaching and learning of mathematics more than the male teachers in Oji river local government Area in Enugu state. And recommend that Government / Ministry of Education should provide audiovisual materials for all the public schools in Oji River Local Government Area in Enugu State.
Background of the study
Mathematics is a compulsory subject which cut across every human facet, and is equally used in every field of human endeavor; it also play a dominant role in the economic development of a country. The significance of Mathematics in producing versatile and resourceful leaders that are needed for economic development cannot be over emphasized. This is why Setidisho (2000), affirmed that Mathematics is a fundamental science that is necessary for the understanding of most other fields in education. Setidsho stressed further that, it is obvious that no other subject forms such a strong force among the various branches of science. Therefore, it can rightly be said that the significance of Mathematics in producing versatile and resourceful leader that are needed for economic development cannot be over-emphasized.
Odusoro (2002) said that the knowledge of science remains superficial without Mathematics. It has been recorded that less than 20% of students venture into mathematics as their discipline. The West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) according to Adenipekun (2017) said that only 26.01 percent , obtained credit in Mathematics, while the remaining candidates failed. Adenipekun disclosed that the result showed a decline in the percentage of candidates who made credit in mathematics, compared to the last two years. The study of mathematics is generally considered as a basic preparation for every informed citizen because it serves as a gateway into almost all the career choices in life (Ambrose 2003). This may be why Soyemi (2005) said that everybody uses Mathematics in one way or the other in solving real life problems. Obodo (2006) defined Mathematics as the study of size, numbers, shape, changes with the relationship between them. This is why nations that desire to forge ahead scientifically and technologically cannot afford to toy with the Mathematical knowledge of her citizenry. This may be why stakeholders in mathematics Education always show concern about students’ mass failure in the subject at the public examinations. Despite the importance of mathematics, learners continue to fail the subject(Feza, 2012). Maree,(2006) reveal that the failure rate in mathematics in schools is unacceptably high.
Despite the importance attached to the knowledge of mathematics, it must be understood that mathematics is mostly poorly performed subject in the secondary schools today. This is based on the fact that mathematical concept are sometimes not presented well and interesting. It has become discouraging to note that, the poor use of audiovisual materials affects students performance negatively ,in different mathematical concepts. some of which is geometry, which deals with shapes and can be taught with different mathematical aids, such as the use of fun mathematics, computer game, mathematics game etc. The use of mathematics games such as geoboard games can make mathematics teaching and learning very interactive, interesting, promote retention and aid student based learning where the students are exposed to real shapes and designs, where the students can make use of the rubber bands to map out different shapes on their own. Sadly enough most teachers don’t make use of audiovisual materials; some are not computer literate, which brings a very big gap in the understanding of the students.
The notion among students that mathematics is an abstract and difficult subject can be attributed to the fact that mathematics teachers do not frequently make use of audiovisual materials.
Researches show that students spend more than 4-5 hours a day in front of media such as television, video, computer, internet, movie, radio, tape, video games and phones etc,(Gridina 2000). It is the belief of the researcher that if students spend such time in relevant topics in mathematics, it will go a long way in helping in the study of mathematics. It is also believed that audiovisual aids may be useful in secondary schools as long as they are used with awareness. In our state, computers are made accessible to students by government to enhance their teaching and learning, thereby making it suitable for the use of audiovisual in teaching and learning.
Ilogu (2005) submitted that students learn in a variety of ways, and their ability to assimilate information also varies, A student’s capacity to learn is impacted by the teacher’s style of conveying information, that is, the teaching methodology adopted by the teachers to facilitate learning processes.
Despite the fact that chalkboard which is not an audiovisual material has been in use for a long time, it has not created the required impact in the teaching and learning of mathematics but if audiovisual materials such as computer games, videos, projectors, computers, clips, fun mathematics. are included, it may lead to a better understanding of mathematics. This is why the researcher decided to carry out the research on the topic the extent of the use of audiovisual materials in teaching and learning of mathematics.
The effective use of audiovisual materials in teaching and learning of Mathematics can make the subject practical, interesting and enjoyable. Audiovisual can be defined as instruction where particular attention is paid to the audio and visual presentation of the materials, with the goal of improving the comprehension and retention of students.
Dike, (2003) defined audiovisual materials as; those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sight, as in visual resources or through a combination of senses. Indeed, the variety of such resources is a striking feature. According to Anzaku,(2011) “the term audiovisual materials is commonly used to refer to those instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or language”. Anzaku further stated that audiovisual materials include materials and equipment alike that materials are considered to be system, or body of content of potential value when put to work, while equipment or instructions, often referred to as hardware, components, are the means of presenting such content.
Webster’s Encyclopedia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language(2008), defined Audiovisual Aids as “training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight, films, recordings, photographs, etc used in classroom instructions, library collections or the likes.”
Ngozi, (2012) agreed that audiovisual materials are very important and useful in education because, the normal learner in so far as the functions of the preceptor mechanisms are concerned, gains understanding in terms of multiple impression recorded through the eye, ear, touch and other series. This is to say that audiovisual materials are the equipment through which that function can occur, that is, it does not occur in isolation, rather through a balance pattern from any preceptor mechanism that are stimulated by external occurrences.
Furthermore, Oketunji,(2000) stressed that audiovisual materials when effectively used have these advantages. They lessen major weakness of verbalism, and vitalize subject matter, provide interesting approach to new topics and give initial correct impressions, supply concrete materials needed, stimulate the initiative of the students. Swank,(2011) stressed the effectiveness of audio visual materials in leaning, estimated that about 40% of o concepts are based upon visual experience, 25% upon auditory, 17% on tactile, 15% upon miscellaneous organic sensation and 3% upon taste smell. However, it is not certain by researchers whether schools were effectively utilizing the opportunities in the use of audiovisual. It is against this backdrop however that the study becomes
Statement of the Problem
Evidence of mass failure in mathematics by students point to the fact that the teaching and learning materials are not effectively used in mathematics classes or are not available in the school, the inability of teachers to make the subject practical due to the abstract nature of mathematics.
The modern world use digital tools, to improve teaching and learning process, the use of audiovisual materials makes teaching and learning interactive, interesting, and enhances retention and understanding for a longer period, the lack of the use of audiovisual materials or availability of audiovisual materials could be the course of low performance or failure of students in mathematics.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to find out the extent of the use of audiovisual materials in teaching and learning of Mathematics in public secondary schools in Oji River Local Government Area, Enugu state.
Specifically, the study sought to find out the following;
- i) The availability of audiovisual materials in teaching and learning of Mathematics.
- ii) The extent of the use of audiovisual material in teaching and learning of Mathematics.
iii) The extent to which male and female teachers effectively use audiovisual materials in teaching and learning of mathematics.
Significance of the Study
The result of the findings would be beneficial to students, teachers, researchers, curriculum planners and even publishers.
This study considered Dale’s cone of experience and Robert gagne’s nine levels of experience. Dale’s cone of experience was propounded by Edgar Dale in the 1960s, according to Dales cone learners retain more information by what they “do” as opposed to what is “heard”, “read” or “observed”. It reveals that “action-learning” techniques result in up to 90% retention, people learn best when they use perceptual learning styles, perceptual learning styles are sensory based. The more sensory channels possible in interacting with a resource, the better chance that many students can learn from it. Audiovisual materials is sensory based, which involved the perceptual learning style, the use of audiovisual materials convert the abstract nature of mathematics to real experience, thereby making mathematical concept practical and concretize knowledge.
Robert Gagne (1916–2002) was an educational psychologist who pioneered the science of instruction in the 1940s. According Gagne’s nine levels learning model
Gaining attention, informing learners of the objective, stimulating recall of prior learning, presenting the stimulus, providing learning guidance, eliciting performance, providing feedback , assessing performance, enhancing retention and generalization, help students in retaining information, by providing materials like graphics, games, and computers. Audiovisual materials covers, the Gagne’s nine levels of learning model, students attention is gained and retained through the use of audiovisual materials, presentation of materials like game computer and graphics are made possible through the use of audiovisual materials.
This study was also significant in showing the reality of mathematics to learners in secondary schools. Students would be able to understand the implication of mathematics in their daily activities which would impact on and change any negative attitude towards the subject. The frequent use of audiovisual materials would enhance learning by making mathematics more concrete and real, leading to better understanding of mathematical concepts.
The findings of this study would help mathematics teachers to develop classroom competence by helping them to use a wide variety of audiovisual materials in their lessons other than the conventional ones, and that it is important to involve their learners in this teaching and learning process.
The findings of this study would enable the curriculum planners to develop and avail enough, quality and audiovisual materials for proper teaching of mathematics.
The findings of this study, if discussed in workshops and seminars will guide the choice of materials used in the teaching/learning process in mathematics.
This study will be of great importance to the researchers, because it `will serve as a reference materials.
Scope of the Study
The study is restricted to public senior secondary school students (SSS1- SS3) in Oji River Local Government Area in Enugu State. The study also limited its scope on the extent of the use of audiovisual Materials in teaching and learning of mathematics which includes interactive whiteboard, mathematics and computer games, computers, projectors, video tapes, internet access, flash cards, illustrated mathematics books and mathematical charts and pictures.
For the achievement of the objective of the study, the following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
- I) To what extent are mathematics audiovisual materials available in teaching and learning ?
- ii) To what extent are audiovisual materials used in teaching and learning of Mathematics?
iii) To what extent do male and female teachers effectively use audiovisual materials in teaching and learning of mathematics?
There is no significant difference on the extent male and female teachers effectively use audio visual materials in teaching and learning of mathematics.
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