The flow nozzle was constructed based on the dimensions and specifications of the international standard organization (I.S.O) recommendation.
Throat diameter 42.5mm
Length converging nozzle 68mm
Thickness of nozzle 2mm
Diameter of major axis of ellipse 85mm
Diameter of minor axis of ellipse 56.6mm
Diameter of duct pipe 85mm
The absence of this device (Nozzle) has imposed a very big problems to early scientist. This had existed due to the difficulties in measuring fluid flow in channel.
These scientist latter came out with different kinds of nozzle which facilitates measurement. They were convergent, divergent and divergent-convergent nozzle.
Other metering devices include venturi meter orifice meter, weir etc. each of them has different structures and mode of operation.
The constructed electric is attached to an upstream pipe to give a substantial steady flow to the down stream pipe. Fouling and head loss should be minimized likewise eddies formation. Lastly, the same diameter of tube should be used to replace themanometric tube when it got broken. Likewise the fluid should be maintained.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE ii
APPROVAL PAGE iii
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL iv
TABLE OF CONTENT ix
- INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT xi
- HISTORICAL REVIEW OF FLOW 4
2.1 THEORY OF FLOW METER 5
- VENTURING METER 5
- ORIFICE METER 8
- FLOW NOZZLE 10
- TYPES OF FLOW NOZZLE 11
- CHARACTERISTICS OF FLOW NOZZLE 13
- ADVANTAGES OF FLOW NOZZLE 15
- DISADVANTAGES OF FLOW NOZZLE 15
- MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION 16
3.1 CONSTRUCTION 17
- DISCUSSION 21
4.1 RECOMMENDATION 22
- CONCLUSION 23
- REFERENCE 25
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The aim of this project is to construct a flow nozzle capable of conveying fluid (liquid) from one point to the other. The parameter used depict the pressure change, the velocity and quantity of flow is also inclusive. The nozzle should be able to create a pressure drop in moving fluid and give the quanity of fluid that flow through for a given period of time. The nozzle should be capable of satisfying industrial requirement when placed in process plant for fluid supply.
The flow nozzle fabricated was based on the following prescriptions.
Throat diameter 42.5mm 42.5mm
Length of converging nozzle 68mm
The thickness of the nozzle 2mm
Diameter of ellipse major axis 85mm
Diameter of ellipse minor axis 56.6mm
Diameter of the duct (pipe0 85mm
The study of fluid behaviour is very important in process engineering. It constitutes the study of unit operation. The branch of engineering that deals with the study of fluid is called fluid machines. An understanding of fluids through pipe, pumps and all kind of process equipment and also for the study of heat flow and pressure change. The branches of fluid machines include fluid static and fluid dynamics fluid static treats fluids in the equilibrium state of no shear streets while fluid dynamics deals with position of fluid in motion relative to other part.
A fluid is a substance that foes not permanently resist distortion. An attempt to change the shape of a mass of fluid result inlayers of fluid scliding over one another until a new shape, shear stress exist, the magnitude of it depend on the viscosity of the fluid and rate of sliding but when final shape is reached, all shear stress will have disappeared.
The term flow means volume per unit time at specified temperature and pressure conditions.
It can be measured using positive displacement meter or rate meter. The term fluid is a generalized name given to liquid and gases. Fluid flow or is transported from one place to another by different means either by container gallon, cylinder, tank the related means to the topic at and now is transportation by pipe.
Pile consist of nozzles and ducts through which liquid flow. A nozzle is a mechanism which kinetic energy of fluid is converted and increased in an adiabatic process.
T his process accompanies decrease in pressure and change in flow area of the fluid.
The variation in shape and diameter of different part of nozzle effect the flow of fluid nozzle comes in different types, we have divergent nozzles, convergent nozzles and divergent-convergent nozzles.
The rate of flow of fluid in pipe is measured by devices which facilitates the ascertainment of the volume of fluid flowing in a unit time. These devices are collective called flow meter or rate meters.
Flow meters are of different types such as venturi-meter, flow nozzle, orifice meter, rofa meter and weirs these devices are used as choice. All the devices mentioned above facilitates movement of fluid on specified direction, speed and size.
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