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TITLE PAGE II
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL V
The sole aim of this research work is comparison and formulation of industrial Bar Soap and detergent. The major expert of this project deals with quality control processes in the production of a high quality bar soap and detergent.
In synthetic detergent which was developed to explain the soapy detergent has a better quality it was prepared by a sulphontor reaction when this is carried at a detergent paste is formed which when builders and other additives were edded become a detergent and when it was died the detergent powder come out from the project it was notice that (STPP) helps the detergent to reduced water hardness by segnestering calcium in and heavy metal in water, could insure the cleaning action of detergent.
Also the hydrogen oxide acts as stain remover due to its bleaching action, the cme act as anti- redemption agent.
In soap production cold process was used and this was found out to be the most effective means of production considering several factors. In the production of bar soap, palm kennel oil was used instead of follow or gaseous gives a high total value which produces soap which is slow to dissolve at low temperature. Different formulation was made and it was found out that the best ratio for a high quality soap to 2:1 of palm kernel oil to caustic soap respectively.
Carrying out test on soap on soap production gave soponification of P.K.O. to be 248.24, respective index 1.45, free aid value of 1.56, aid value of 3,5, moisture content of soap 30.29 percentage free alkali 0.4%, alcohol insoluble mater of 1.43% and put value of 8.80 at a temperature reading of 30.00c.
Soap can be defined as the sodium or potassium salts of fatly acids containing 12 to 18 carbon atoms which are either soluble or insoluble.
They are also salts of acids. There are two classes of soaps namely had and soft soap. The nature depends on the metallic radical in the alkali used in the production.
They are characterized by the well known soap like properties of lowering the surface tension of water, foaming assisting wetting and emulsification and promoting list removed or detergency.
By virtue of their dirt removing pro properties such soaps may correctly be deseribed as detergents.
An advantage which the detergent posses in common over soap in that they are not precipitated by the calcium and magnesium salts present in herd water.
Soaps and detergents belong to the general class of substances known as surface-active agents or surfactants. They are substances which when dissolved in a solvent even at very low concentration have the prosperity of lowering the surface energy and hence altering the surface behaviors of the solvent to an extreme degree. this phenomenon of surface- activity may be exhibited in aqueous system.
May types of oil and fat can be used too the production of soap but the project is limited to the use of palm kernel oil. Different concentrations of sodium hydroxide concentration to get the best blend of soap.
The characteristics of the soap produced such as texture, odour, later and other properties would be obtained as it will save as a quality control means and it will instill some confidence to the consumers.
In this work, high quality industry soap can be produced using palm kernel oil. It therefore entails working out the soap the soap thermals and using the formulations to produce soap which is to be compared with the detergent.
The soap so produced will be tested to determine their various physical and chemical qualities. In the other way, high quality detergent can be produced using sulphonated linear alkyl benzene.
Generally, we are going to formulation and compare the industrial bar soap and detergent.
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