TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
List of figures
CHAPTER ONE; INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background to the Study
- Statement of the Problem
- Aim and Objectives
- Significance of the study
- Location, Extent and Accessibility
- Regional geologic setting and geomorphology
CHAPTER TWO; LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Origin and Evolution of the Benue Trough
2.2 Regional Stratigraphy of South Eastern Nigeria
2.3 Tectonic Settings
2.4 Stratigraphic setting
CHAPTER THREE; MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials and Descriptions
3.2 Field Mapping Parameters
3.3 Method of study
3.4 Methods of Data Analysis
3.4.1 Sieve Analysis
3.4.3 Hydrogeological studies
CHAPTER FOUR; (RESULT AND INTERPRETATION)
4.1 lithostratigraphic description
4.2 Grain size analysis
4.3 Biostratigraphic analysis
4.4 Hydrogeological analysis
4.5 Economic geology
CHAPTER FIVE; SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 1: Map of Ebonyi state showing the location of the study area.
Fig 1.1 Accessibility map of the studied area.
Fig 1.2: Vegetation distribution map of the south eastern Nigeria (After Floyd 1969)
Fig 1.3 Annual rainfall distribution of the south eastern Nigeria.
Fig 2. Generalized geological map of southeastern Nigeria
Fig 3; Massively weathered sandstone beds at Osso-Edda
Fig 3.1: Logged section of the outcrop in location 1(Osso-Edda junction along Ama-ekpu Edda road)
Fig 3.2: Logged section of the outcrop in location 2 (Ndi ugbo Edda)
Fig 3.2.1: massively weathered sandstones at Owutu Edda
Fig 3.3: Logged section of the outcrop in location 3(Owutu Edda road after the roundabout.)
Fig 3.4: Logged section of outcrop 4(Asaga-Amangwu village)
Fig 3.5: Logged section of the outcrop in location 5(Egbara Ebunwana Edda junction round about)
Fig. 4.3: Micrographs of some palynomorphs recovered in the examined samples.
Fig. 4.3.1: Histogram % frequency distribution of the total particulate organic matter (POM) present in the examined samples.
Fig. 4.3.2: Summary of the kerogen characterization and interpretations.
Fig. 4.3.3: Photomicrographs of the kerogen slides showing the various (POM) in the examined samples.
List of Tables
Table 1. Stratigraphic Sequence Showing the Positions of Eze-Aku Group Relative to other
Formations of South Eastern Nigeria (Modified after Igwe, 2013)
Table 2: Typical values for mean (Mz) (After Folk and Ward, 1957)
Table 3: Terms used to describe the sorting values (After Folk, 1974)
Table 4: Terms used in describing skewness (After Folk, 1974)
Table 5: Terms used in describing kurtosis (After Folk and Ward, 1957)
Table 6.Grain size analysis data for sand sample 1
Table .7: Grain size analysis data for sand sample 2
Table 8: Grain size analysis data for sand sample 3
Table 9 Grain size analysis data for sand sample 5
Table 10. Grain size analysis data for sand sample 6
Table11. Computed grain size parameter drive from probability curve
Table 12: Average values for the parameters
Table 13: Linear discrimination functions (Y1, Y2, and Y3) result for the analyzed samples.
Table 14.Palynomorph species result at station 4
Table 15. palynomorphs species result at station 5
Table 16.palynomorphs species result at station 7
Table 17. palynomorph species result at station 10
Table 18. palynomorphs species result at station 11
Table 19: Summary of % frequency distribution of the total Particulate Organic Matter (POM) present in the analyzed samples.
Table 20. Hydrogeological Test of Ufueseni River
Ama-Ekpu Edda lies within the Afikpo-Basin, a sedimentary basin set up during the late cretaceous period following the santonian uplift in the southern Benue trough. From the the field study, the Local stratigraphy shows that the lithologic succession consists of black to dark grey shales and sandstone ridges. The sandstones ridge consist of fine to coarse grain that is finining upward. Palynological analysis from the shale samples collected from the surface outcrops in the area yielded a total of 210 palynomorphs, made of 9 pollen species, 5 spore species. The abundance of the pollen species of Longaperites sp, Monosulcites sp, and monocolpites margiriatus, the spore species of cyathides minor, Laerigatosporites sp, along with the dinoflagellate cysts species of leoisphaerida sp, Andallusiclla sp, and senegalium sp, and especially a high abundance of the foraminifera species Bolivina Anambra, suggest a nearly late Campanian to Early Maastrichtian age for the sediments. Based on the distribution of the palynomorph species recovered from the shale samples, the study area has been interpreted as an open marginal marine to estuarine environment at the time of sediment deposition occurring during a period of marine incursion. Hydrogeological investigation of the surface water collected at ufueseni River shows the presence of coliform which probably results from feacal deposits washed down the river through erosion.
Keywords: Shale, Biostratigraphy, Palynology, Palynomorphs.
- background to the study
The study area Ama-ekpu Edda and its environs comprises of villages in Afikpo South Local Government of Ebonyi State. Communities within the studied area include; Achara, Amancho, Amangwu, Asaga, Amoba, Okpocha, Ekoli, Ebunwana, Ugwufiere, Ufueseni, Owutu, Ekeje, Letu, and Nguzu-Edda. This project work tends to evaluate the fundamental factors influencing the properties of cohesive soils within the study. These cohesive soils were largely found in Ama-ekpu Edda and nearby villages around. The study area, Ama-ekpu Edda, lies entirely in the Afikpo Sub-Basin, a depression set up subsequently with the Anambra Basin after the epierogenic event which folded and uplifted the Albian-Cenomanian sediments into the Abakiliki Anticlinorium. The Afikpo Sub-Basin is a coeval basin with the Anambra basin, both lying unconformably on the Santonian sediments of the Benue Trough, even though recent studies have revealed that pre-Santonian sediments occur within the basin. Sediments making up this basin include those deposited in the second depositional cycle from the Campanian to Maastrichtian. The study area is underlain entirely by the Nkporo formation, the basal lithostratigraphic unit of the Afikpo Sub-Basin. This formation as observed in the study area comprises of grey to black coloured fine-medium sandstone lenses. The shale underlying the study area has high organic content and gypsum. The gypsum occurring in the sediments are diagenetic minerals occurring as scattered streaks in the beds. It has been acclaimed for its highly fossiliferous nature of the shale, this work incorporates data from both palynological biostratigraphy and the more conventional foraminifera biostratigraphy, as tools in acquiring the age and depositional history of the sediments, providing thus, unbiased information. The lithological and microfaunal association of the Nkporo formation suggests a restricted shallow marine environment. A normal marine origin has however been suggested for the Asaga-Amangwu shale based on palynological evidences as obtained from palynological analysis, as well as a marginal to marine for the Nkporo formation, assigned a Maastrichtian age for the sediments of this formation based on mollusces and fish teeth from Asaga-Amangwu and Nkporo village suggesting an early Maastrichtian age for the sediments following an integrated study of foraminifera and palynomorphs; whereas, a late Campanian age was assigned to these sediments in from palynological analysis alone. While much of these works were obtained from regional studies, this work studies particularly the microfaunal association of the study area.
1.1 Aims and Objectives
- To make a detailed description of the different rock types encountered.
- To study the Geology and fossil analysis of Ama-ekpu Edda and use it to determine the age relationship between the lithologies encountered in the environment of deposition.
- To make a detailed study of the economic minerals potential of the area.
- To discuss the geology of the area, the lithofacies units, interpret and analyze the fossil assemblage encountered in the study area, and interpret the depositional environment.
- Constructing a geologic map of the study area.
1.1.2Significance of the Study
Why we went to the field is to add or support the knowledge to the existing knowledge of the area.
- Location, Extent and Accessibilty
The study area Ama-Ekpu Edda is located at Afikpo south local Government Area of Ebonyi state in south Eastern Nigeria. The extent of study or mapped area is bounded on the North and south by latitudes 5º50’N and 5º55’N of the equator and on west and east by longitudes 7º50’E and 7º55’E of the Greenwich Meridian respectively Fig.1 is the accessibility map of the study area.
Fig 1. Accessibility map of the studied area.
The study area (Ama-epku Edda) is accessible through a network of major roads, minor roads and footpaths that exist within the area. Some of the major roads include Abakiliki – Afikpo road, Afikpo – okigwe road, Amasiri – Edda road. Some of the outcrops are located along the Amasiri – Edda road, Amasiri- Afikpo road. Minor routes to the study area include the Owutu-Nguzu-Edda, Ebunwana road, Ufueseni road, and some of the footpaths that helped in accessing the area like Amangwu and some outcrops are located along river channels. The villages within the study area where the outcrops was exposed include; Osso Edda, Ebunwana, Owutu Edda, Asaga-Amangwu.
1.1.4 Regional Geologic Setting and Geomorphology
Geomorphology is the interpretation of the land forms based on the effect of certain factors such as vegetation, drainage, erosion and weathering. The geomorphology of Ama-ekpu Edda and its environs is a characteristic of the lithology of the area, the area is characterized by undulating high land that has a height of about 250ft at Asaga area its slopes descend abruptly in some areas and gently in some area. The hill is predominantly sandstone which is resistance to erosion and has sparse vegetation, the streams that cut through ufueseni take their source from the Asaga hill the low land areas close to this streams are characterized by shale with a lush vegetation or huge vegetation
The study area of Ama-ekpu Edda is characterized by undulating plane alternating from E-W comprising ridges and hills, with variation in elevation. The base datum of the study area lies in an area of moderate relief between 125-245m above sea level. The ridges and hill in the areas run from N-S along the abakaliki anticlinorium. Most generally occurs are planes underlain by shales and sandstones ridges which form the topographic height.
The study area of Ama-ekpu Edda is drained by Okpukpo River, Otoni River, Iyioka River and Ubei River through the Ebonyi River running from Akpoha to where they form a Y junction flowing into Cross River and depositing large amount of sand sediment (alluvium causes decrease in intensity, capacity and velocity of the river). This implies that the study area exhibits
dentritic drainage pattern and low level sheet erosion is experienced in the study area. As a result of the landform of the study area, these seem to be surface water runoff. The shale underlying the sandstone also makes surface runoff possible as it does not allow for water percolation. (Fig 3
Fig 1.1.2 drainage map of the study area
Two main types of soil can be found in the study area, these are the silty clayey hydromorphic soil and the grey sandy clay hydromorphic soil, the farming land has a brown silty clay subsoil. It is moderately to imperfectly low natural fertility, with appropriate agro technique and regular application of fertilizer, this soil can produce good yields of a wide variety of crops ranging from cassava to vegetables, plaintain and groundnuts. The sandy clay hydromorphic soils occur in the low lying areas of the study area (Ama-ekpu Edda) where the soil is grey, fine loamy sand, clay to clayey. In addition to poor fertility, strong acidity and lack of nutrients, this soil suffers from poor drainage. Due to the excess of moisture it is mostly suitable for rice cultivation.
The study area has thick vegetation with high forest zone. The vegetation also follow paths of stream in between the escarpments having lowland areas made up of luxuriant grasses and isolated trees, which is referred to as gallery vegetations. The vegetation condition of the area is controlled by lithology of the area sparse shrubs and grasses cover the sandstone area why thick vegetation is characteristic of the clayey and shale areas the major crops cultivated in the area are cassava and vegetable especially towards Ufueseni river banks.
Fig 1.2: Vegetation distribution map of the south eastern Nigeria (After Floyd 1969)
1.1.9 Climate and Weather
The study area lies between humid tropical rainforest is it bounded by fresh water swamp to the south and guinea savannah grass land to the north, the major climate variables are the rainy and dry seasons. The rainy seasons usually begin from late March and ends in early October and sometime November. The dry season usually begins from November and ends in March. Therainfall is sometime turbulent and accompanied by thunder storm .the annual rainfall in the area is about 1000mm – 1500mm, the month with highest rainfall is September where rainfall can be as high as 2500mm during the raining season in the month of august there is an august break which last for about two weeks .In the dry season in the month of December the harmattan sets in it is associated with low humidity. The Temperatures of the study arealead to oxidizing conditions that cause chemical weathering of outcrops. Average annual rainfall varies from 1750mm to 2250mm. The vegetation here is a parkland, with stunted trees and pockets ofwoodland and forest consisting of shrubs and large trees. The occupation here is generally subsidence farming and fishing (fig 1.3)
Fig 1.3 annual rainfall distribution of the south eastern Nigeria.
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