This work presents a detailed geology of Enugu-Ngwo and environs. The study area is bounded by latitudes 7o23’N and 7o30’N and longitude 7o23’E and 7o30’E.The area extent covers approximately 167.7km. Three distinct formations such as Enugu Shale, Mamu Formation and Ajali Formation are exposed in the area.
The Enugu Shale is carbonaceous, fissile, grey and jointed with beds of siltstone and clay. The Mamu Formation contains a distinctive assemblage of sandstone, Shale, mudstone and sandy shale with coal seams at several horizons. Field measurement shows that it has average dip amount of about 5.6o in the south western direction and average strike direction of about 126oAzimuth. Results from sieve analysis show that Mamu Formation is moderately well sorted to moderately sorted, coarse skewed to strongly fine skewed and very leptokurtic to extremely lepkurtics. The plastic and liquid limit test show that the shale has plasticity of 19% and liquid limit of 29%.
The Ajali Sandstone is white in colour and some places iron stained. It consists of friable, poorly sorted, fine to coarse grained sandstone and lies conformably on the Mamu Formation. It is a good aquifer to the study area. Field measurement shows that it has average dip amount of about 6.25o in the southwestern direction and average strike direction of about 5.6o Azimuth.
Results from sieve analysis show that Ajali Sandstone is poorly sorted, coarse skewed to nearly symmetrical, and very platykurtic to mesokurtic. The hydrochemical analysis of some of the surface water shows that the water is not fit for human consumption but could be used for other purposes. Among the sedimentary structures present in the area are cross bedding, laminae, joints, faults and biogenic structures. The area has a dendntic drainage pattern and has a high potential for groundwater as well as surface water supply. A significant geologic deposit found in the study area is coal. Others are sandstone, laterite, ironstone, shale and fire clay.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Content – – – – – – viii
List of figures – – – – – – – xii
List of tables – – – – – – – xv
List of plates – – – – – – – xvii
- Location – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Accessibility – – – – – – 1
1.2 Objective and Scope of study – – – 2
1.3 method of Investigation – – – – 3
1.3.1 Desk study – – – – – – 3
1.3.2 Reconnaissance survey – – – – 4
1.3.3 Detailed Geologic Survey – – – – 4
1.3.4 Laboratory studies – – – – – 5
1.4 Problems encountered – – – – 5
1.5 Precautions – – – – – – 6
1.6 Literature Review – – – – – 7
2.0 Geomphology of the study Area – – – 11
2.1 Topography – – – – – – 11
2.2 Climate and Vegetation – – – – 12
2.3 Drainage – – – – – – – 13
2.4 Weathering – – – – – – 14
2.5 Erosion – – – – – – – 14
3.0 General Geology – – – – – 16
3.0.1 Geological History and Tectonics – – – 16
3.0.2 Basin fill – – – – – – – 17
3.0.3 Regional sedimentation pattern in the study area 18
3.1 Geology of the study area – – – – 18
3.1.1 Description of Lithologic Units – – – 20
184.108.40.206 Enugu shale – – – – – – 20
220.127.116.11Mamu Formation – – – – – 20
18.104.22.168 Ajali Sandstone – – – – – 28
22.214.171.124 Subsuface Lithostatgraphy – – – 35
3.2 Structural Geology – – – – – 37
3.2.1 Primary Sedimentary Structures – – – 38
3.2.2 Secondary Sedimentary Structures – – 40
3.3 Grain Size Analysis – – – – – 42
3.3.1 Statistical Size Subtraction Analysis – – 43
3.3.2 Summary of the Sieve Analysis Data – – 59
3.4 Plastic and Liquid Limit Test – – – 60
3.4.1 Plastic Limit Test – – – – – – 60
3.4.2 Liquid Limit Test – – – – – – 62
4.0 Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology – 66
4.1 Hydrogeology – – – – – – 66
4.1.1 Surface Water Hydrology – – – – 66
4.1.2 Groundwater Hydrology – – – – 67
4.2 Hydrogeochemistry – – – – – 70
4.2.1 PH – – – – – – – – 71
4.2.2 Hardness – – – – – – 71
4.2.3 Iron – – – – – – – – 72
4.2.4 Coliform count – – – – – – 72
4.2.5 Manganese – – – – – – 73
4.3 Environmental Geology – – – – 77
4.3.1 Weathering – – – – – – 77
4.3.2 Geotechnic – – – – – – 78
4.3.3 Erosion – – – – – – – 78
126.96.36.199 Erosion Control Measure – – – – 79
4.3.4 Quarry – – – – – – – 80
4.3.5 Pollution and Contamination – – – – 81
5.0 Economic Geology – – – – – 83
5.1 Coal – – – – – – – – 83
5.1.2 Important of Coal Mining – – – – 85
5.1.3 Coal as a Source Rock – – – – – 86
5.2 Shale and Clay – – – – – – 86
5.3 Sandstone/sands – – – – 88
5.4 Laterites – – – – – – – 89
Summary and Conclusion – – – – 90
Summary – – – – – – 90
Conclusion – – – – – – 92
References – – – – – – 93
LIST OF FIGURES
|Fig. 1||Geologic map of Enugu – Ngwo and Environs|
|Fig. 2||Accessibility map of the study area|
|Fig. 3||Map of Enugu showing the study area|
|Fig. 4||Diagram showing cross a section of Enugu Escarpment|
|Fig. 5||Map showing wet season winds and rainfall|
|Fig. 6||Map showing dry season winds and rainfall|
|Fig. 7||Map of Nigeria showing natural vegetation|
|Fig. 8||Map showing the drainage pattern of the area|
|Fig. 9||Tectonic map of southeastern Nigeria during the Albian – Santonian|
|Fig. 10||Tectonic map of southeastern Nigeria during the campanian to Eocere|
|Fig. 11||Geological sketch map of Eastern Nigeria|
|Fig. 12||Diagram showing a section of Mamu formation around Milliken Hill Enugu – Ngwo||
|Fig. 13||Outcrop section of Mamu at Ekulu River||
|Fig. 14||Outcrop section of Mamu Formation along Enugu-Onitsha expressway||
|Fig. 15||Outcrop section of Mamu along PRODA road||26|
|Fig. 16||Outcrop section of Ajali Sandstone at Abor||29|
|Fig. 17||Outcrop section of Ajali Sandstone along Enugu Onitsha Expressway||
|Fig. 18||Roadcut of Ajali Sandstone along Enugu – Onitsha express way||
|Fig. 19||Outcrop section of Ajali Sandstone near oche stream||34|
LIST OF TABLES
|Table 1||Depositional cycles in the Southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary basin.||
|Table 2||Classification of the formations||19|
|Table 3||Scale and Description of sorting||44|
|Table 4||Scale and description of skew ness||46|
|Table 5||Sieve analysis result from sample I of Mamu Formation||47|
|Table 6||Interpretation of result||49|
|Table 7||Sieve analysis result of sample 2||49|
|Table 8||Interpretation of result||50|
|Table 9||Sieve analysis result of sample 3 from Ajali Sandstone||52|
|Table 10||Interpretation of result||53|
|Table 11||Sieve Analysis Result of Sample 4 from Ajali Sandstone||56|
|Table 12||Interpretation of Result||58|
|Table 1 3||Summary of Sieve Analysis||59|
|Table 14||Plastic Limit result||61|
|Table 1 5||Liquid limit result||63|
|Table 16||Aquifer Parameter within the Ajali Sandstone and Mamu Formation||69|
|Table 1 7||WHO Standard for Drinking water||73|
|Table 18||Results of Water Analysis||75|
LIST OF PLATES
Plate 1: Mamu Exposure showing the coal seam at Onyeama Mine
Plate 2: Ekulu River one of the Main Rivers in the study area
Plate 3: An exposure of Mamu Formation along Enugu-Onitsha express way.
Plate 4: Mine dump at Onyeama Mine as a source of surface water contaminate.
Plate 5: Water seepage from Mamu Formation along Enugu-Ngwo road.
Plate 6: Seam 2 of Okpara Coal Mine
Plate 7: Vegetation of the study area
Plate 8: Outcrop of Mamu Formation showing lamination along Enugu-Onitsha express way.
Plate 9: Underground mining system at Okpara Mine.
Plate 10: Quarry site at Akwuke along Okpara mine showing also the topography.
The study area is located in Enugu state, Nigeria, and lies between latitudes 6o23’N and 7o23’N; and longitude 7o23’E and 7o30’E.It is situated on the edge of the escarpment and has an area extent of approximately 167.7km2 .It covers Enugu-Ngwo,Ngwo-Uno, 9thMileConer, Ameke-Ngwo,Etiti-Ngwo,Okwojo-Ngwo,Amachala-Ngwo, Ukaka-Ngwo,Iva Valley,Uboji-Ngwo,Enugu town, Ogbete, Akwuke, parts of Nsude,Eke,Abor and Ebe.
The major routes that enhance accessibility to the area are the old Enugu-Ngwo – Enugu road, ENUGU – Onitsha expressway, old Nsukka road, road to Okpara and Onyeama Coal mine, and road to Ameke brewery. Several other secondary roads and footpaths created by villagers which make movement easier also exist. Figure show the accessible map of the study area.
1.2 Objectives and Scope of Study
The objective of this thesis is to study the detailed geology of the study area with respect to the litology, structural features, stratigraphy, and assessment of viable economic deposits. It embraces the study of sedimentological and petrographic characteristics of the rocks and the hydrogeology of the study area. The objectives also include the production of detailed geologic map of the area. The geography (climate, vegetation, topography) and the associate environmental hazards are evaluated and suggestions are made to effect hazard control.
- Method of Investigation
The method of investigation involves four stages, namely: desk study, reconnaissance survey, detailed geologic survey and laboratory analysis.
1.3.1 Desk Study
This involves the consultation of available journals, bulletin, reports and relevant materials about the study area. This exercise was done in the geological science department library, Nnamdi Azikiwe Univerity, Awka, Enugu State University and University of Nigeria, Nsukka.The topographic map of the area was also studied. All these provided hints on the location, boundary, extent and access to the area.
- Reconnaissance Survey
A reconnaissance survey of the area was embarked few days to the detailed study, .During this exercise, a formal notification letter was given to the traditional rulers of the surrounding towns. Also, an insight about the accessibility, lithology, drainage pattern and topography of the area was gained.
1.4.3 Detailed Geologic Survey
A topography map 1: 25000 of the study area was used for the detailed geologic survey. During the study, lithologic units and boundaries were delineated based on changes in vegetation, topograghy, soil colour, and rock type. Strike and dip of beds and structures were measured on the outcrops, while rock samples were collected from the field for laboratory analyses. Each of the samples collected from the outcrop locations was appropriately labeled and named. Detailed measurement of outcrops as well as detailed description and sketches of these outcrops and structures were made. Photograph of important geologic features were taken for reference purposes.
The field instruments used during the study include: brunton compass, geologic harmer, tapes, sample bags, camera, field notebook, writing materials and ruler.
1.3.4 Laboratory Studies
The laboratory analysis carried out include: grain size analysis, hydrogeochemical analysis, plastic and liquid limit test. The grain size analysis was carried out on four samples collected from Mamu Formation and Ajali Sandstone. Two samples from each of the formations were analyzed. From the grain size analysis, sorting, skewnes.kurtosis, grain size distribution and environment of deposition were determined. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out on some of the water samples collected from surface water of the area at WATSAN Awka, Anambra state. Plastic and liquid limit test were carried out the shale collected from the Mamu Formation to determine the plasticity and liquid limit.
- Problems Encountered and Possible Errors
The task of moving across thick vegetation and crossing streams and rivers in order to measure the dip, strike and thickness of beds was problematic during the study. The prevalent weather condition during the period of the study also imposed big problem as the work was often interrupted by rainfall. The problem of tracing the lithologic boundaries due to thick vegetation was also encountered. The scarcity of outcrops of Enugu Shale made difficult the measurement of dip and strike and laboratory study of the formation.
Care was taken to ensure that the samples (rocks and waters) collected from different locations of the study area were not mixed up by rebelling them properly at the point of collection. The dip and strike amount and direction of the studied outcrops were also recorded on site. The boundary between the formations were traced far inside the bush to guard against confusion between the road construction materials and the true lithology. In both field and laboratory study, sensitive instruments were used. Thus, the good working condition of instruments such as brunton compass clinometer, weighing balance and sieve sets were confirmed before use. The samples were also guarded against contamination before the laboratory analysis was carried out.
1.6 Literature Review
The geological survey of the area and indeed, the whole of southern Nigeria started in 1903 by the mineral survey of Nigeria. Simpson (1954), Wilson (1925) and Bain (1924) geologically investigated the sedimentary rocks of southern Nigeria and established the geology of the eastern Nigeria. This was after the discovery of coal at River Ofan in Udi in 1909, which prompted the geological survey of Nigeria to embark on a broader mapping of the southern Nigeria in1922 where a lot of emphases were based on the Nigerian coal field, with particular detail on the geology of the escarpment area, west of Enugu.
Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited documented important information on geological and geophysical survey of the Southeastern Nigeria while exploring for crude oil between 1938 – 1941 and 1946 – 1951.The stratigraphic succession in the southern sedimentary basin was developed by Shell-Bp in 1956 and was modified by De-Swardt and Cassey (1963).
A biostratigraphic correlation of the southern Nigerian sedimentary basin was attempted by Reyment (1965).He used the abundance of fossils such as foraminifera,ostracods,pelecypods and ammonites to date the rock units such as Ezeaku Shale,Nkporo Formation which is laterally equivalent to Enugu Shale,Mamu Formation,Ajali Sandstone and Nsukka Formation. Ladipo (1989) showed the influence of tide in the depositional environment of Ajali Sandstone. The depositional environment was termed deeper marine shelf facies. Three major depositional cycles in southern Nigerian sedimentary basin was identified by Short and Stauble (1967). The first cycle( Albian to Santonian) was confined to the Benue – Abakaliki trough. The second cycle (Campanian – Cretaceous) filled the Anambra basin and the Afikpo syncline. The last cycle led to the development of the modern Niger Delta. In the Albian to Santonian sedimentary phase of the tectonic cycle, the southern Benue trough came to an end with the folding, faulting and uplifting. Erosion of the Coniacian, Turonian, and the Albian deposits occurred with the uplifting of the Abakaliki anticlinorium.Subsidence in the area began a new marine transgression which led to Campanian – Maastritchian age of Nkporo Shale as well as its lateral equivalents (Enugu Shale and Owelli Sandstones) as described by Reyment (1965).The Campanian began with a short marine transgression followed by a regression in southeastern Nigeria. The Nkporo Shale constitutes the basal beds of the Campanian. The broad sea gradually become shallower and the paralic sequence of the lower coal measure was deposited. This formation was underlain by the continental sequence of the Ajali Formation followed by a return to partial condition with the deposition of the upper coal measure.
Hoque and Ezepue (1977) studied the petrology and paleocurrent direction of Ajali Sandstone and proposed the Cameroon granite as the provenance of the sandstone. The comparative analysis of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity values within the Ajali Sandstone and Mamu Formation aquifer was shown by Egboka and Uma (1984, 1985). They established the most reliable of all statistical method of obtaining the aquifer parameters and noted that the Ajali and Mamu aquifers are the source of acid water flooding in the Enugu coal mine.
A noticeable feature in the Nigerian geological literature is the frequent change in the naming of formations. Thus, what is now known as the Mamu Formation was originally called Coal Measure by Bain (1924). It was changed to Lower Coal Measure by Tattam (1944) who first observed that the Coal Measure is actually made up of two coal bearing formations namely: the Lower Coal Measure and the Upper Coal Measure separated by a thick series of sandstone. The Lower Coal Measure was later called Enugu Coal Measure by Tattam. There was later a return to the name Lower Coal Measure by Simpson (1954). The current name Mamu Formation was given by Reyment(1965) after the Mamu River. The Mamu River is in the neighborhood of Enugu. The Upper Coal measure was also renamed Nsukka Formation by the same Reyment. The name Enugu Shale was given by Groove,(1951) and has been in use since that time.
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