The study examined the impact of resource adequacy and utilization on students’ academic performance in Ondo West of Ondo State Public Secondary Schools. Descriptive survey design was used. A simple random sampling technique was adopted to randomly select twenty (20) public secondary schools in Ondo West Local Government Area of Ondo State. Through the use of a structured questionnaire tagged “Educational Resources and Academic Performance Questionnaire (ERAPQ)”, relevant data for this study were collected and analyzed using frequency count, mean, standard deviation and Pearson’s product moment correlation which were used to answer the research questions and to determine the degree of relationship between resource adequacy, resource utilization and academic performance of secondary school students.
The result of the findings showed a high positive relationship between resource adequacy and student’s academic performance. It however revealed low positive relationship between resource utilization and academic performance of students. Suggestions for the procurement of more fund and resources in public secondary schools were made in order to enhance students’ academic performance.
Background to the Study
Resource constitutes a major strategic factor in organization (Akinfolarin, Ajayi and Oloruntegbe, 2012). Resources in any situation imply the human and non-human resources available in the realization of organizational goals. For this reason, resources are very important in the development of qualitative education. The success or failure of an education system depends on the quality and quantity of resources made available to it. (Babalola and Ayeni, 2009). The degree of provision and utilization may seriously influence the performance of an organization. Adequacy and utilization of resources in an organization is as important as the achievement of goals and objectives. Students’ learning outcome is not likely to be known or observed without using the appropriate resources effectively and appropriately. (Ibukun, Akinfolarin, and Alimi, 2011). Every organization aim at achieving specific goals and objectives, to accomplish these objectives, tasks must be identified; tools and other resources must be provided and utilized appropriately (Akinfolarin et al, 2012).
In a developing country like Nigeria, education has been given high priority by federal, state, local government and members of the public. It is an instrument of change, an avenue whereby a nation achieved greatness socially, politically, technologically and economically. According to Adeogun (2002) cited in Babalola and Ayeni (2009), education has been described all over the world as the key that opens the door of civilization and development. Education, according to The National Policy on Education (2004) has been adopted by the federal government as an instrument for National development. From the above statement the government places so much importance on education, as a result, lots of resources both financially and materially have been committed to it by both federal and state governments from their annual budgets. As far back as 1971 United Nation Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) report reveals that the expenditure on education during the year 1956 to 1966 in Nigeria represented on the whole is about 15.2% of the national revenue. Despite the fact that United Nation Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has recommended that every developing nation that wants a standard education should allocate 25% of their annual budget on education, Nigeria still allocate less than 25% of their annual budget on education in recent years.
According to Nigerian Tribune on Thursday 25 November 1999, in caption; Mass failure will continue until…..” the chairman of the National Committee of WAEC, Dr. U.B. Ahmed opined that the classroom is the origin of failure……………… a close look at the public schools and what goes on there shows that nothing good can come out of most schools as they do not have facilities, adequate and appropriate human resources to prepare candidates for WASSCE. (Joseph and Philias, 2011).
Since academic achievement is associated with various conditions, learned scholars have tried to study the effects of variables like teachers’ qualification, learning environment, age of pupils, students’ socio-economic background, teaching and learning facilities and psychological balance of student.
According to Hallack cited in Joseph and Philias (2011), facilities form one of the potent factors that contribute to academic achievement in the school system. They include the school buildings, classroom, accommodation, libraries, apparatus and other instructional materials. He went further to say that their availability, relevance and adequacy contribute to academic achievement. He however, quickly added that unattractive school buildings and overcrowded classrooms among others contribute to poor academic attainment. Fafunwa, Adesanya and Ajayi equally agreed that schools have the problem of inadequate resources, which include human (teachers), physical (chair) and financial (money) resources. These problems have its root embedded in the menace caused by those holding political offices and political programmes.
The adequacy of resources and the efficient utilization of educational resources are paramount ingredients for the success of any education endeavour. One of the huge points of this study is to investigate the extent to which resources available in secondary schools are being utilized in order to promote high academic performance.
It has always been realized that resources are very important in development and improvement of education in Nigeria in order to have a better improvement on the learning outcomes, it is very essential to look into the need for resource adequacy and efficient utilization of these resources in Nigerian secondary schools and Ondo West of Ondo State in particular because the sufficiency and adequate use of resources are the most prominent remedies to effective learning outcomes in the secondary schools education system.
Statement of the Problem
One of the major problems confronting Nigerian educational system is inadequate and ineffective utilization of educational resources in schools.
The break-down of 2009 results in West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) and National Examination Council (NECO) indicated a mass failure across the 36 states of federation. From the analysis in 2009, it was recorded that in Ondo State which the focus of this study less than 2% of the candidates who sat for the examination made five credits and above in NECO and WASSCE while 0.95% of the candidate made credit passes in English Language and Mathematics. (Alimi, Ehinola and Alabi, 2012).
The consequence of mass failure in public examination is the inability of learners to proceed to higher educational institution. (Alimi, Ehinola and Alabi, 2012). As a result of this poor performance, stakeholders in education are curious to know the causal factors associated with the problem. Causes of the poor academic performance could include ownership of the school and inadequate facilities (Alimi, Ehinola and Alabi, 2012).
Educational researchers has noticed that there is urgent need to proffer lasting solution to the problem of insufficient and ineffective uses of school resources which is one of the causes of students’ poor academic performance in secondary schools in Ondo State.
This notification has motivated the educational researchers to attempt an investigation of the problem and find out the relationship that exist between resource adequacy and utilization and students’ academic performance.
The study, therefore, will examine relationships that exist between resource adequacy and utilization and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ondo West of Ondo state.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to ascertain the impact of resource adequacy and utilization and students’ academic performance in Ondo West of Ondo State. Other specific purpose of this study are:
- To determine if there is any relationship between resources adequacy and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools.
- To identify if any relationship exist between the utilization of resources and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools.
- To find out if there is any relationship between teachers’ adequacy and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools.
- To examine whether there is any relationship between classroom adequacy and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools.
- To investigate whether, there is any relationship between adequacy of financial resources and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools.
- To determine if there is any relationship between time utilization and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools.
- To find out if there is any relationship between teachers’ utilization and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools.
In other to guide this study, the following research questions have been generated specifically to pilot the study as it intends to find answers to the research questions. They are:
- Is there any relationship between resource adequacy and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools?
- Is there any relationship between resource utilization and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools?
- Is there any relationship between teachers’ adequacy and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools?
- Is there any relationship between classroom adequacy and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools?
- Is there any relationship between adequacy of financial resources and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools?
- Is there any relationship between time utilization and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools?
- Is there any relationship between teachers’ utilization and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools?
Significant of the Study
The results and findings of this study might help educational managers to initiate strategies to be employed to ensure resource management and prudent, efficient and optimum utilization of available resources in school system. All these would facilitate the smooth administration of the school system and the entire education industry in a manner then yield maximum results and the required benefits to the society.
This study might help educational managers, administrator in the formulation and implementation of educational policy towards the attainment of the overall educational goals and objectives as stated in the National Policy on Education (2004). It might also assist the government at all levels (Federal, state and local) and even educational planners in the implementation of educational policies that might foster adequate provision, utilization and equitable distribution of both human and non-human educational resources in the school system.
This study might also assists the educational managers, technocrats and even educational administrators to be aware of current issues of educational planning as well as analyzing them in their context.
Finally, students, parents and teachers might equally benefit from the findings of the study as it might proffer lasting solutions on the problems of students’ academic performance and also help to eradicate the problems, which arise from misappropriation of funds. It might also provide information for further investigation on the impact of educational resource on students’ academic performance.
Delimitation of the Study
The focus of the study is on Human, Physical and Financial resources with influence on students’ academic performance in Ondo West of Ondo state.
In Ondo State, there are three(3) senatorial districts, eighteen(18) local government areas and two hundred and eighty one (281) public secondary schools. This study is delimited to Ondo West Local Government Area in Ondo central senatorial district. Ondo West Local Government has thirty-three (33) public secondary schools. Samples are taken to represent the public secondary schools present in the local government area.
Definition of Terms
For the purpose of this study, the following terms are defined so as to remove ambiguities.
In this study, resources in education are the sum total of everything used directly or indirectly for the purpose of education, and training, to support, facilitate or encourage transmission and acquisition of knowledge. Four main categories of resources considered in this study are: human resources, physical resources, financial resources and time resources.
In this study, human resources refer to the teachers in the school system.
Physical resources as used in this study, refers to the classrooms, libraries and laboratories.
As used in this study, it refers to formal education children receiver after primary education and before tertiary stage.
In this study, financial resources are the money available and used in the schools system.
In this study, resources utilization is defined as resources efficiently used in the education system in order to ensure effective teaching and learning.
In this study, resource adequacy is defined as resources sufficient in quantity and good enough in quality for the purpose of achieving successful and convenient teaching and learning process in a school system.
As used in this study, is the display of knowledge and skills attained as shown by the marks and grades achieved by students of a school in an examination after course content.
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