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Title Page – – – – – – – – – -i
Certification- – – – – – – – – -ii
Dedication- – – – – – – – – -iii
Acknowledgements- – – – – – – – -iv
Table of Contents- – – – – – – – -v
List of Table – – – – – – – – – -viii
Abstract- – – – – – – – – -x
1.1 Background of the study — – – – – – -1
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – – -6
1.3 Objectives of the study- – – – – – – -8
1.4 Research question- – – – – – – -8
1.5 Research hypothesis- – – – – – – -8
1.6 Scope of the study- – – – – – – -8
1.7 Significance of the study- – – – – – – -9
1.8 Operational definition of terms – – – – – – -10
2.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – -11
2.2 Review of concept – – – – – – – -11
2.3 Review of related Literature — – – – – – -19
2.4 Theoretical framework – – – – – – -23
2.5 Summary- – – – – – – – -23
3.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – -25
3.2 Research design- – – – – – – – -25
3.3 Population of study- – – – – – – -25
3.4 Sampling Technique/ Sample size- – – – – -26
3.5 Description of research instrument – – – – – -26
3.6 Validity and reliability of data gathering instrument – – – -27
3.7 Method of Data Collection- – – – – – -27
3.8 Method of Data Analysis- – – – – – -27
4.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – -29
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis- – – – – – -29
4.3 Testing of Hypothesis- – – – – – – -37
4.4 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – – -39
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – -41
5.2 Summary of findings – – – – – – – -41
5.3 Conclusion- – – – – – – – -42
5.4 Recommendation- – – – – – – -43
5.5 Suggestion for further studies – – – – – – -44
References- – – – – – – – – -45
Appendix I – – – – – – – – – -49
Appendix II – – – – – – – – – -50
Table 1: Sex distribution of Respondent- – – – – -30
Table2: Age distribution of respondent – – – – – -31
Table 3: Occupation distribution of respondent – – – – -31
Table 4: Marital status of Respondent- – – – – -32
Table 5: Education attainment of Respondent – – – – -32
Table 6: Location of Respondents – – – – – – -33
Table 7: Owing a television set – – – – – – -33
Table 8: Availability of channels – – – – – – -34
Table 9: Frequency of exposure – – – – – – -34
Table 10: Clarity of the MTN adverts- – – – – -35
Table 11: What can you say about MTN television adverts? – – -35
Table 12: Believability of MTN advert messages- – – – -36
Table 13: Reasons for believing- – – – – – -36
Table 14: Reasons for not believing- – – – – – -37
Table 15: Assessment of MTN advert towards sales promotion- – -37
Table 16: Effectiveness of MTN adverts on television- – – -38
This project examines the Impact of television advertising in promoting the sales of
MTN products in Enugu metropolis. Survey research method was used for the study
and purposive sampling technique was used to draw a sample size of 200 from
residents in Enugu metropolis. Research findings showed that MTN adverts on
television have greatly impacted in promoting sales of MTN products in Enugu
metropolis and a great number of the residents in Enugu metropolis strongly believe
in MTN advert messages. In conclusion, television advertising has indeed connected
MTN to Nigerians especially Enugu residents, by helping to create the initial
awareness of their services, thereby promoting the demand and purchase of the
company‟s product. Based on these findings, the study recommended that MTN-NG
advertising unit should always conduct a research to help them reduce risk to a
manageable proportion. To this end, the researcher recommended MTN-NG should in
testify efforts in nourishing good customer‟s relationship and carry out research from
time to time to find out new desires of their customers and ways to meet up in order
to reduce risk to a manageable proportion. The research suggested that further studies
should be carried out on the impact of MTN adverts in Newspapers, Magazines, and
on Radio and Internet.
1.1 Background of the Study
Much of the early history of advertising in Nigeria largely centers on the
activities of the offshoots of multinationals such as Unilever and its advertising
agency, LINATS. (Ozoh, 2001,). A more vigorous industry emerged much later with
first major impetus being provided by the Nigeria Enterprise Promotion Decree of
1972 otherwise known as Indigenization decree. The decree had provided for
advertising as a wholly business with exclusive ownership reserved for Nigeria.
Nigerians were suddenly thrust into the position of major drivers in the industry even
when they were not ready to assume such post.
But the incipient signs of the emergent activism and vitality that were later to
characterize advertising were evident of the Association of Advertising Practitioners
of Nigeria (AAPN). The association struggled relentlessly over the years raising the
sensitivity of the public and the government to the problems and interest of the
advertising industry. The struggles of the AAPN (which was an Umbrella organization
of the advertising agencies in Nigeria) were to pay off in 1988, when government
accorded legislative recognition to the profession. In that year, government
promulgated a decree now tagged Decree 55 of 1988. The decree established the
advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON) and gave it the following
powers and functions;
Determining who advertising practitioners are.
Determining what standards of knowledge are to be attained by persons seeking to
become registered as members of the advertising professions and reviewing these
standards from time to time.
Securing in accordance with the provision of the decree, the establishment and
maintenance of the register of practitioners and the publication from time to time of
the list of the persons.
Regulating and controlling the practice of advertising in all its aspects and
Conducting examination in the profession and awarding certificates or diploma to
successful candidates when appropriate and for such purpose the council shall
prescribe fee to be paid in respect thereof.
With the coming of APCON, advertising assumed full fledged professional
status. The profession is usually characterized by a defined body of knowledge and
skill which its members must acquire a formal mode of admission and licensing before
one could become a member of the profession. Advertising has by virtue of decree 55
acquired these characteristics. Advertising has all over the years assumed a powerful
communication force highly visible and one of the most important tools of marketing
communication that helps to promote sale of products, services, ideas and images etc.
Advertisements are seen in newspapers, magazines, on televisions and internet and are
heard on radio.
The Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON), (1993,p.2),
defined advertising as “a form of communication through media about products,
services or ideas paid for by an identified sponsor.” Bovee and Arens (1992,p.7 )
defined advertising as “ non-personal communication of information, usually about
products (goods and services) or ideas by an identified sponsor through various
media.” Ulanoff (1977,p.17) also defines advertising as “a tool of marketing for
communication of ideas and information or time on the media or uses another
communication vehicle to carry its messages and its openly identifies the advertiser
and his relationship to sales effort.”
All these explains advertising as a non-personal messages meaning there is no
personal interaction between the advertiser and the audience expect in the case
personal selling where there is face-to-face presentation and promotion of the product
or services by the sales person. It is usually delivered through a media and often
viewed as the intrusion. It is also paid for by an identified sponsor. This reflects the
fact that the space or time for an advertising messages generally must be brought by a
sponsor. Advertising plays a vital role not only to the agencies that practice it but to
the manufacturers, media and customers as well. In media for example advertising
constitutes a source of income. Newspaper as a rule receive two third of their revenue
from adverts. The survival of radio, television magazines and other channels of mass
communication without advertisements is better imagined than real. More so, one best
appreciates the beauty, elegance and glamour which advertisement add to the
entertainment nature of the media when we imagine the absence of such interline to
promote products and services during programmers‟ on radio and television. As for
consumers, advertising is educational; people learn about new products and services or
improvements in existing ones through advertising. In addition, most advertisements
help in producing psychological effects and can help in changing only mental states of
audiences and predispose them towards the purchase of the advertised products and
services. From the advertising point of view Doghuje (1985,p.19) says “advertising is
a marketing tool whose sole aim is to build preferences for advertised brands or
services”. Advertising is best at creating initial awareness of a product or services
building an image and reinforcing existing impressions consumers have of a brand. It
also stimulates demands, strengthens other promotion mix elements, develops brand
preference cut costs, and serves as competitive weapons for marketers. It is on this
premise that organizations are rapidly learning that an efficient and effective
communication with target audience can be the difference between marketing success
or failure. Marketers are keenly interested in new ways of effectively communicating
with consumers especially through advertising. They are more concerned with
developing tactics and strategies of marketing and advertising the products and
services to the consumers.
Television advertising originally stemmed from radio advertising. Initial,
(Groberman 2011) Radio campaigns were simply utilized as a means of selling radios
and assortment of other commonly used products. However, when advertisers begin to
realize that this could be an effective means of communicating with the audience
throughout the day, they begin to look for new and more innovative ways to gain
public attention and aim it towards a given product. More than any other point, 1948
proved to be the year television advertising truly began to take center stage. This
worked out for a number of reasons including the country coming of World war II and
an assortment of other social factor, coupled with there finally begin enough television
sets for a given message to be effectively delivered. Finally, after alot of researches
and even more surveys of what the public sort from their television set, marketers
moved in the first advertising angel revolved around making the titles of given shows
features the name or certain products or products lines. Among the most prominent
examples of this included; Call gate comedy hour and Coke time. Eventually as a
result of the increased popularity of television, companies began to realize that a more
profitable alternative to the one- product-per-show advertising method that they were
employing had to exist. It wasn‟t until NBC executive Sylvester L Weaver did the
public first began to get a taste of television advertising as we recognize it today.
Weaver and an innovator introduced a new concept of television advertising in which
sponsors will purchase blocks of time during a show so as to allow multiple sponsors
for any show. It relived agencies of all the cost related to producing a show. By 1969,
things became stable and advertising industries grew stronger.
Mobile telephone network( MTN) South Africa was launched in 1994 an it‟s
the largest cellular network operators, operating in countries in Africa and the middleeast. As at the end of December 2006, MTN records more than 40million subscribers
across its operations. Karel Punnor was the founding father of MTN South Africa. The
early days in South Africa entails a great deal of handwork. The company was just
focused on rolling out the networks ensuring there was enough capacity for the
subscriber growth in their first year of business, voice mail and SMS were later added.
According to tele-geographics global communication database (2000), MTN was
founded in Nigeria on November 8,2000 as a private company. It secured license to
operate digital on August 23, 2001. MTN emerged as the first to make a successful
call on its GSM network in the new dispensation. Thereafter, the country launched full
commercial operations beginning in Lagos, Abuja, and Port-Harcourt. MTN
advertising activities commenced before its operation. They virtually painted the
streets of Lagos and Abuja Yellow its brand color of advertising, billboards and teeshirts exhibited the advert. MTN Nigeria advertising programme captured the mood in
August (2001) with its first television advertising “rising sun”. The advert shows a
nation waking up to a new day with the sun rising brightly into a beautiful sky. They
indeed connected Nigerians to themselves in a new day. “Achieve what you want
achieve” since launched in August 2001, MTN has steadily deployed its services
across Nigeria. And a growing number of high ways across Nigeria and the federal
capital territory Abuja. Many of these villages and communities are being connected to
the world of telecommunication for the first time ever.
The company also subsist on the core brand values of leadership, relationship
integrity, innovation and “can do” it prides itself on its ability to make the impossible
possible connecting people with friends, family and opportunities. The bond of
friendship have got stronger. The ties of family have got closer, older friends have
been nurtured. New relationships have been created, Nigerians are connected to new
hopes; aspirations and better life opportunities are sourced all as a result of the power
of communication.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One major fact is that we are being bombarded with advertisement messages
day-in-day -out from all imaginable media. The average consumer is exposed to a very
large number of advertisements every day, particularly the urban and semi-urban
population. Advertising has been perceived as a veritable medium of stimulating,
motivation and influencing the purchase and other behavioral response of their
prospective customers. The potency of advertising in product promotion cannot be
over emphasized. Though MTN products like MTN pay-Go, MTN Share and Sell,
MTN talk-On, MTN magic-Number, MTN call-Back, MTN mobile Money MTN
Friends & Family, MTN Pulse, MTN Happy hour, MTN TruTalk etc. are made known
to their customers through advertising, there are still some problems affecting
customers‟ awareness of their products.
Though there are other media through which MTN advertises its products,
television advertising is of more important in MTN advertising. Although there are
certain problems encountered by MTN in advertising its products in Enugu metropolis;
such as the appropriate time to reach the target audience at the same time, the problem
of which television houses within Enugu metropolis watch most, the quality and
clarity of messages that will be best understood by MTN customers or perspective
customers. Despite all the benefits derivable from sales promotion and the need to
keep up with stiff competition in the market place, many organizations especially in
the developing countries still fail to accept sales promotion as a marketing tool to be
reckoned with?
The question the researcher seeks to address is, what is the actual impact of
television advertising of MTN products on residents of Enugu metropolis concerning
numerous problems confronting television advertising production?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of carrying out this research includes the following;
1. To find out if the residents of Enugu metropolis have access to television.
2. To determine the frequency of exposure of residents of Enugu to MTN advert
messages on television.
3. To examine the impact of MTN television advertisements on residents of
Enugu metropolis.
1.4 Research Questions
1. Do the residents of Enugu metropolis have access to television?
2. What is the frequency of exposure of residents of Enugu metropolis to MTN
adverts on television?
3. What is the impact of MTN television advertisements on residents of Enugu
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H1: There is significant difference between residents of Enugu metropolis who watch
MTN television adverts and those who do not.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study intends to cover the entire MTN Company in Enugu and its
environs. In a nutshell the study is delimited to only identifying the impact of
Television advertising even though advertising consist of promotion, personal, selling,
sales promotion and public relation.
It therefore cost intensive to cover all these fields of study. The research therefore is
to investigate the relevance of television advertisement in the promotion of sales from
the staff and top management of MTN Company in some restricting Enugu metropolis.
1.7 Significance of the Study.
Economically the finding will be beneficial to MTN Company by providing
feedback, a frame work which they will use to measure the advertising effectiveness,
especially in the area of communication. It will also give them a better understand and
knowledge of advertising activities as a necessary tool for marketing productivity.
To the public‟s, it will get them more exposed to the advert messages that they
will get to know more about the products they are buying and the benefits and
compare the products with other related ones.
To advertisers who have advertising as their profession, it will give them more details
about the company studied in this research and enable them to know when and how to
reach the public and how best to make a good living as advertisers.
Finally, this research will provide on in depth knowledge to researchers and
readers alike.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms.
Impact: Is the powerful effects or influence MTN has on its subscribers.
Advertising: it is the effort of MTN Nigeria to present and promote the sales
of its products through the media.
Products: they are goods and services provided by MTN such as MTN
callback, MTN talk-on, MTN mobile money etc.
Television: it is an electronic medium through which information about the
products and services of MTN are transmitted to the target audience


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