One of the most significant developments world wide is the rapid increase in urbanization. This is more so in developing countries where urbanization is proceeding at the alarming rate. Nigeria is not an exception to this trend. The researcher, who has an intense interest to study those problems that befall urban centers in Nigeria, wrote on the urbanization in Nigeria. Problems and prospects; (a case of Orumba North Urban Council). The aim is to identify the various problems that befall urban dwellers in Orumba North council and other emerging urban centers of Anambra State. The work seeks also to ascertain the reasons for rural urban migration in Anambra State, and Others in the course of the study, the researcher used survey and questionnaire methods and equally conducted oral interviews to gather the required data on the subject matter. The researcher find out that, crimes, lack of accommodation, or housing, unemployment, urban sprawl, prostitution, and other problem which are existing in Orumba North urban council. It also discovered that other emerging urban centers in Anambra State has not attained the status of urban centre. The researcher concludes with recommendations on how to mitigate urban problems such as; Extension of social amenities to rural areas, creation of employment opportunities by the government etc.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – v
Table of content – – – – – – – vi
- Introduction – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the study – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – 6
1.3 Objectives of the study – – – – – 7
1.4 Research Question – – – – – – 8
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis – – – – – 9
1.6 Significance of the study – – – – – 10
1.7 scope of the study – – – – – – 11
1.8 Limitation of the study – – – – – 11
1.9 Definition of terms – – – – – – 12
- Literature Review – – – – – – 14
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 14
2.2 Meaning and nature of urban area – – – 14
2.3 Urbanization in Nigeria – – – – – 16
2.4 Trends in urbanization in Nigeria – – – 20
2.5 causes and consequences of problems of urbanization in Nigeria. – – – – – – – – – 27
2.6 The prospects of urbanization in Nigeria. – – 39
Reference – – – – – – – – 44
- Research Design and Methodology – – – 45
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 45
3.2 Research Design – – – – – – 45
3.3 Sources and methods of Data collection – – 46
3.4 Sample size – – – – – – – 47
3.5 Sample Technique – – – – – – 47
3.6 Validity and Reliability of measuring instrument- 48
3.7 Method of data analysis – – – – – 49
- Presentation and analysis of data – – – 51
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 51
4.2 Presentation of data – – – – – – 51
4.3 Analysis of data – – – – – – 61
4.4 Test of Hypothesis – – – – – – 62
4.5 Interpretation of results – – – – – 69
- Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation – 71
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 71
5.2 Summary of finding – – – – – – 72
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – 73
5.4 Recommendations – – – – – – 74
References – – – – – – – – 76
Appendix – – – – – – – – – 78
Questionnaire – – – – – – – – 79
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
One of the most significant development world wide is the rapid increase in urbanization. This is more so in developing countries where urbanization is proceeding at an alarming rate. Nigeria is not exceptional to this trend. It is the most urbanized country in Africa in terms of degree and spread of urbanization.
As the population of Nigeria increased from 30.4 million in 1952 and 1953 to 55.6 million in 1963, then to 88.5 millions in 1991 and 107.2 millions in 1997 and over 200million in 2019 the number of urban centers and their population also increased tremendously as a result of the influx of migrants (people’s movement) from rural areas to urban areas Ezeani (2001).
Also creation of states in Nigeria has not only bring development in remote areas but has created a certain amount of healthy competition in economic development between states and has also encouraged rapid urbanization in the country. This is because as more urban centers become state capitals, the rate of urbanization also increased. For example, the creation of 12 states in 1967 create eight more urban centers, which include; Bauch, Makurdi, Yola, Orumba, Ikeja, Minna, Abeokuta and Akure. The same trend of urbanization was experienced when the number of states in Nigeria increased to 19 states and 21 states and then to 30 states.
Today, Nigeria has a total number of 36 states with the federal capital territory Abuja and the all the states capitals urban centers.
The local government reform of 1976 also contributed to the high rate of urbanization in Nigeria. The reform shows that local government should serve the population of between 150,000 and 800,000 since it was aimed at bringing people nearer to the government, at the same time share resources, particularly oil revenues more within the federal system like Nigeria. The state government used those guidelines in the subsequent arrangement for the creation of local government areas. This resulted to the creation of over 302 local government areas in 1980’s and has increased to the current level of 774. Also local government headquarters have been selected from existing urban centers and new urban centers where none existed before.
The increased number of urban centers in Nigeria resulted from the creation of states and local government areas as well as other administrative, commercial and industrial activities in the country have resulted in large urban population and this number is likely to continue increasing.
Furthermore, Nigeria being a developing country is experiencing a rapid increase in urbanization. The urban area exists at the expense of the rural areas. Many rural dwellers keep migrating to urban centers due to the backward nature of the rural areas. The process of urbanization continues as more and more people migrate from rural area to urban centers. In 1952 Nigeria had fifty four (54) towns with a population of 20,000 and more. During this time, the total population living in these towns and cities was about 3.1 million. The population and the number of towns and the cities increased tremendously in 1963 with 10.7 million respectively.
It is important to note that some Nigerian states are highly populated and urbanized than others. For instance, every state has urban centers, but the degree of urbanization differs from state to state, city to city and even within the same state. In former Eastern states of Nigeria, some cities are more thickly populated than others. Such as Enugu, Onitsha, Abakaliki, Orumba, Calabar and of course Orumba North etc. This does not mean that other minor cities or urban centers were not in existence. The large population noticed in some of these old urban centers was as a result of early migration (movement) and concentration of people in these areas. Making reference to the western states, some states are more urbanized than others. There is no how the degree of urbanization in states like Lagos, Ibadan, Abeokuta, Ogbomosho can be compare with other cities in the West. For instance, in Lagos alone by 1963, 73 percent of the population lived towns with 20,000 or more people and for western states, the comparable figure was 52 percent. No other state had more than 20 percent of its population in the urban areas of this size.
According to 1991 census data, it was indicated that urbanization has increased tremendously. This indication shows that urbanization in Nigeria has taken a geometrical progression, and is likely to continue to accelerate in the next years.
Although urbanization especially in developed nations is associated with industrialization and economic development, it also has certain consequences in the developing countries such as Nigeria. Indeed, a major implication of the spectacular growth of the cities is that Nigeria is threatened by serious urban crisis today. One cannot visit such cities as Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Orumba, Onitsha, Enugu, Abakaliki, Aba and others, and fail to develop a sense of crisis about the human condition a sense of urgency about remedial action, a sense of hopelessness about greatly improving urban conditions.
Thus, urbanization in Orumba North, Anambra state is closely associated with problems such as; degraded environment, unemployment, poverty etc. all these have emerged as major socio-economic issues with potentially important political implications.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
As earlier stated, urbanization is a continuous process, the Anambra State government in an effort to develop Orumba North rural area in the state has paved way for numerous urban problems, which directly or indirectly affect the live hood of the rural dwellers.
This problems, identified by the researcher include, over population, unemployment, environmental problems of various kinds and magnitude, accommodation, uncoordinated development or urban sprawl, illiteracy, health problems, problem of market (ie sizable market), poor articulated urban policies as a result of fragmented urban political authority, poverty etc. also there are social vices of various kind such as armed robbery, prostitution, fraudulent acts (419) and cultism etc.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In the study, the researcher raised the following questions as research questions
- To what extent does urbanization affect the development of rural area in Orumba North?
- Does the urbanization in Orumba North are the causes of all kind of social vices in the various towns in the local government?
- To what extent does urbanization improve the life of people in Orumba North?
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
From the above so far, the study will help to identify the various problems that befall urban dwellers in Orumba North council and other emerging urban centers of Anambra State.
Also through the study the following will be look into;
- To examine if urbanization affect the development of rural area in Orumba North
- To ascertain if urbanization in Orumba North are the causes of all kind of social vices in the various towns in the local government.
- To examine whether urbanization improve the life of people in Orumba North.
- STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
From the objectives of study the following hypothesis are proposed by the researcher for verification:
Hi: Urbanization affect the development of rural area in Orumba North.
Ho: Urbanization doesn’t affect the development of rural area in Orumba North.
Hi: Urbanization in Orumba North is the causes of all kind of social vices in the various towns in the local government.
Ho: Urbanization in Orumba North is not the causes of all kind of social vices in the various towns in the local government.
Hi: Urbanization improve the life of people in Orumba North.
Ho: Urbanization do not improve the life of people in Orumba North.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work is of great relevance to the society at large. This is applicable to the government, the readers of this research work and to the researcher.
The benefit of this research work to the government is that by the end of the research, the weak-points and short – comings of all the sectors of the nation would be pinpointed and displayed based on findings, thereby proffering solution to the problem.
To the reader, they will be upgraded intellectually and also will be highly informed of the up and doings of the local governments in Nigeria. It will also give the reader’s insight on how the urbanization affect the development of rural area.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The essence of this research work is to Study Impact Of Urbanization On The Development Of The Rural Area In Anambra State. The research intends to focus on Orumba North Local Government Area.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
In the course of writing and carrying out this project work, the research encountered many difficulties; some errors in the results of the research and from external sources of data collection. These are factors standing as constraints thereby limiting the effect of the research result.
Among these are, time finance , scope and use of wrong statistics in data analysis, due to time limit, the research work is a time consuming one. A lot of time is taken to observe the subjects.
Most times the behaviour of the staff changes even when they are aware that they are being observed by the researcher, this is by taking their behavior. The researcher also observed that these senior staff some time give true and false information in order to cover their branches.
At sometime the research work lasted over two months due to large scope of area of the study.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
The terms used in this project are defined according to how they are used in the work to facilitate a better understanding and to enhance all the ideas conveyed. The terms defined are without conflict with the ideas they conveyed outside the context.
UBRAN: According to oxford advanced learner’s dictionary urban deals with developed areas of the state. Or heterogeneous settlement developed as a result of the activities that goes on in it.
URBANIZATION: This is describe as the transformation of an area from rural status to urban status or is the concentration of human population into a discrete area leading to a transformation.
CITY: This is a large and important area or center where multiple activities such as education, commercial activities, manufacturing, political and cultural activities take place.
ENVIRONMENT:- This means surroundings, especially the materials socio-psychological spiritual and sanitation influences, which affects growth, development and existence of a living being.
MANAGEMENT – This is the systematic coordination of human and material resources to achieve an identifiable or predetermined objective.
DEVELOPMENT – A process by which scarce resources are combined to achieve a given ends.
URBAN – The settlement with a population of 30,000 and above people.
URBANISM: This is purely a socio-cultural and psychological phenomenon, which refers to the behavioral characteristics of urban dwellers and make them different from the rural dwellers.
RURAL AREA. Nigeria classifies any area with a population of 20, 000 people and below as a rural area. They are those areas, which are in a state of depression, degradation and deprivation and immersed in poverty.
Community: Is derived from the latin word “Communis” Meaning “Common” Webster dictionary defined it as a small unit within a large one having interests, work etc. common. Maclver sees community as an area of social living marked by same degree of social coherence.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design, area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, methods of data collection, instruments for data collection, reliability of the instruments, validity of the instruments, distribution and retrieval of instruments and methods of data analysis. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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