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Table of Contents
Title page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
1.1 Background of study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Scope of the study
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Operational definition of significant terms
2.1 Historical background of NBC
2.2 Review of concepts
2.2.1 Concept of code
2.2.2 Approaches to broadcasting regulation
2.2.3 Issues in broadcasting in Nigeria
2.2.4 Regulations affecting the broadcasting media
2.2.5 Source of regulations
2.3 Review of related study
2.4 Theoretical framework
2.5 Summary of literature review
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research design
3.3 Population of study
3.4 Sampling Techniques\ Sample size
3.5 Description of Research Instrument
3.6 Validity of Data Gathering Instrument
3.7 Method of Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.3 Discussion of Findings
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendations
Appendix A
Appendix B
Table 1: Gender distributions of respondents
Table 2: Age distributions of respondents
Table 3: Marital status distributions of respondents
Table 4: Educational qualification distributions of respondents
Table 5: Number of worked years of respondents
Table 6: Awareness of NBC code
Table 7: Extent of NBC code awareness
Table 8: Application of NBC code
Table 9: NBC’s method to ensure AIT’s compliance with its code
Table 10: NBC’s control method effect on AIT
Table 11: NBC code does not aid AIT’s professionalism
Table 12: NBC code does not guarantee objectivity, transparency and ethical values
Table 13: AIT is not enjoying press freedom with the presence of NBC code
Table 14: AIT’s adherence to NBC code affects the content of its programme
Table 15: AIT’s adherence to NBC code goes very far to affect the organization
Table 16: NBC closure of AIT had a very high effect on the organization
Table 17: NBC‘s ban on AIT was not right
Table 18: NBC ban affected AIT in retrenchment, reduction of image and restructuring
Table 19: AIT’s response to NBC ban
Table 20: NBC’s reaction on AIT is and the ethics of journalism
The aim of this study was to investigate the implication of National Broadcasting
Commission (NBC) code on African Independent Television Lagos. Five research
questions were formulated for the purpose of this study. Other questions 20 in number
came as questionnaires to the staff of AIT Lagos to determine the implication of national
broadcasting commission on their organization. The research method adopted for this
work is survey because of its convenience, reliability and cheapness. Questionnaires
were administered to the 118 staff of AIT Lagos. Also, the entire population was studied
as the sample size since the population is small and could be handled by the researcher.
Findings from the field show that the code of NBC does affect the operation of the
organization. And also, the 2006 NBC ban on the organization affected the organization
restructuring, retrenchment of few staff and reduction of image. Recommendations have
been made on how NBC should make its code appropriate in order for the broadcast
media to abide to such regulations.
1.1 Background of study
Radio and television are essential organs for national development and should
therefore be used for the promotion of Nigerian’s cultural, economic and political
development. As the media utilizes the airwaves, which belong to the public, the
broadcasting media should be used to improve and promote unity and security of the
people of the nations. There is need for a body that will regulate their operations. While
this body is expected to have controlling powers over the broadcasting media; it shall at
least provide operational code that will prevent the abuse of the media.
On 24th AWugust, 1992, the then military president, Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida,
signed into law, Decree No 38 which allows private participation in broadcasting. This
was done through the establishment of the National Broadcasting Commission. Decree
No 38 authorized the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) to issue license and
regulate broadcasting in Nigeria. This is why every transmission of sound and vision
either by cable, television, radio, satellite or any medium of broadcasting from anywhere
in the country is subjected to its authority.
However, the broadcasting media like the other media of mass communication must
be geared towards national unity. Without a national policy that provides clear guidelines
for other operations the broadcast media may not play their proper role in the growth and
development of the nation?
This is why there is need for a body like NBC which is the sole chartered
organization with power to regulate broadcasting in all its activities.
NBC was, among other things, empowered and designed to carry out these
 Setting up standard on acceptable content and quality of broadcast content
in Nigeria.
 Seizing transmission equipment or withdrawing licenses where necessary,
should any broadcast media breach the NBC code.
 Upholding the principle of equity and fairness on broadcasting.
Section 3.1.1 of the Federal Commissions Act authorized the National
Broadcasting Commission to withhold the licenses of stations indicated for
violating the NBC code.
Television came to Nigeria for the first time (though experimentally) in 1956,
when Queen Elizabeth 11 came to Nigeria in that year, the BBC came with a large
contingent. The BBC placed TV screens outside the assembly hall to enable those
outside the gallery of the house to watch what was happening.
Nigeria takes credit as the pacesetter in regard to television broadcasting. That
notwithstanding, television broadcasting started in Nigeria as a result of intense political
and ethnic rivalry. Precisely, the first television in Nigeria was the Western Nigeria
Television (WNTV), Ibadan. It is thus readily clear that the colonial masters did not
make much use of television during the period of colonialism in Nigeria.
Chief Obafemi Awolowo established the WNTV. He had earlier sought
permission for access to the government owned NBS so that he would reply to the
allegation of act of perfidy levelled against him by the colonial masters.
Therefore, the actual grievance that eventually gave rise to regional broadcasting
dates back to 1953 constitutional crisis which brought Chief Awolowo , leader of the
Action Group, into a head-on clash with the then Governor of Nigeria, Sir John
Chief Awolowo was said to have made uncomplimentary statements in the
legislature during parliamentary debate on Nigeria’s independence. As a result, the
Governor made a broadcast to the nation and made allusions to Chief Awolowo and his
party, charging them with perfidy. Awolowo’s reaction was a request for ‘’equal time’’
from the NBS to reply the Governor’s remarks. The request was turned down. The
refusal ignited desires in Awolowo to establish a broadcast station, a move critic
described as bogus and wasteful. Awolowo then took the bold step, under the aegis of the
Western Nigeria government. In May 1959, the government in partnership with the
Overseas Rediffusion Company Limited started the Western Nigeria Broadcasting
The Western Nigeria venture sparked off a desire for radio television
establishment in the regions.
Eastern Nigeria established its own station called the Eastern Nigeria Television
(ENTV), in 1960, and so did Northern Nigeria in 1962 with the establishment of radio
and television in Kaduna.
On October 1 1960, Nigeria’s Independence Day, both radio and television
stations went on air in Enugu, capital of Eastern Nigeria. By 1968 the Eastern Nigeria
Broadcasting Corporation was maintaining two television stations, one in Enugu and
another in Aba.
In April 1962 the federal government started the Nigerian Television Service,
Channel 10 Lagos, headed by T.O.S Benson. After the civil war in the country there was
significant increase in television broadcasting. Almost all the twelve states of the
federation had their own TV stations. In 1976 the number of stations had risen to
nineteen. The politics of Nigeria immediately before and after independence placed more
emphasis on developing regions more than the seat of power at the federal level.
In 1977, the Nigeria Television Authority, NTA, was established to function as
an independent body. NTA was given charge over television broadcasting in Nigeria.
However, the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria later removed the exclusive
powers of NTA in television broadcasting in Nigeria. The constitution rather allowed for
the establishment and operation of broadcast stations by different state governments,
organizations or individuals subject to the president’s permission.
According to Okunna (1993:55) in the period between 1979-1983 ten state
governments established their own television stations with the result that by the end of
1983, Nigeria had thirty-two TV stations each operating within the official guidelines
and programmed schedules, depending, of course, on whether it is owned by the state
government or operated as part of the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA).
On October 1 1975, Jos television (former Benue-Plateau Radio\ TV) started
colour transmission thereby becoming the first television station to send colour signals.
By 2003, Nigeria had open-air stations, private stations, which are mostly
satellite retransmission stations.
Udeajah (2004:342) noted that these stations are grouped as follows.
 Voice of Nigeria (VON)
 National Television Authority ( NTA)
 135 FRCN FM stations
 37 state broadcasting corporations (radio and television) including Aso FM Abuja.
DAAR Communication did not start broadcasting operations until 1994, six years
after its in-corporation. This was due to legislative initiative in Nigeria’s broadcasting
sector. It was not until August 24, 1992, about fifty years after the advent of broadcasting
in Nigeria, that the government promulgated Decree No 38 which deregulated the
ownership of the electronic media in the country.
This piece of legislation ushered in a new era of private ownership of radio and
television stations. DAAR Communication applied for radio, television and direct
broadcasting by satellite license, the license was subsequently granted. It began full
commercial broadcasting operation on September 1, 1994 on its high radio channel with
the call sign, RAY POWER 100.5, the first private independent radio station in the
Federal Republic of Nigeria.
AIT’s audience is global; the appeal is to a broad cross-section of popular taste to
those seeking authentic and authoritative information about African, Caribbean, and Afro
American experience. AIT provides the natural programming choice. The station beams
quality programmes round the clock down linked and redistributed in Africa, the whole
America, Mexico and the Caribbean. The in-depth coverage aims to keep global viewers
fully in tune with the soul of an African broadcaster offering premium quality service.
DAAR Communication Limited broadcasting stations are on air 24-hours daily.
Likewise its Internet Company also provides 24-hour services.
AIT’s main task is to project Africa from a holistic African perspective,
undiluted, and absolutely original; AIT offers the world a new insight into the African
experience. The management structure allows for autonomy in running of the distinct
service that makes up the broadcast company- RAY POWER 100.5, AIT and DAAR
INTERNET with separate general manager for each of the stations, the autonomy of the
arms is only limited to the extent that it is answerable to a broad management that is
headed by the chief operating officer.
1.2 Statement of the research Problem.
Implication of the NBC code on broadcasting media can be said to be how the
National Broadcasting Commission activities and services have been influencing the
operating of the broadcast media. Ever since the establishment of the National
Broadcasting Commission, it has been trying its best to regulate the broadcast media in
the society. This research work would help to show the implication of National
Broadcasting Commission code on AIT broadcasting media.
1.3 Objectives of the study.
The aims and objectives of this study are:
 To find out to what extent news staffs are aware of the NBC code.
 To examine in what methods NBC code is being carried out on AIT.
 To find out if NBC code in anyway aids AIT’s professionalism.
 To examine the implication of NBC code on AIT’s programme.
 To find out to what extent the AIT’s closure in 2005 affected its news reportage.
1.4 Research Questions
 To what extent are AIT’s news staffs aware of the NBC code?
 What methods does NBC use to ensure AIT’s compliance with their code?
 Does NBC code in anyway aid AIT’s professionalism?
 How far does NBC code affect AIT’s programmes?
 To what extent did the NBC closure of AIT in 2005 affect the organization
1.5 Scope of the study
This research work will look into the subject, implication of National Broadcasting
Commission Code on broadcasting media. The findings of this research work are limited
to African Independent Television Lagos state.
1.6 Significance of the study
It is hoped that the findings of this research work will not only add to the vast
knowledge about the implication of the National Broadcasting Commission code on
broadcasting media. It will also serve as a reflection of the activities of the National
Broadcasting Commission. It would also help broadcasting media in building their
operations on NBC directives.
Again, it will serve as a guide to prospective researchers who may want to further
explore this area of study.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
This is the definition of various terms that make up the research topic according
to their operational meanings to the research work.
Implication: This is implied as the action of national broadcasting commission code on
National Broadcasting Commission: This is a regulatory body established by the
government to monitor and regulate the operations of broadcast media of which AIT is
Code: This is the system of accepted laws and regulations that NBC use to govern
procedure on behavior of broadcast media (AIT).
Broadcast: This is a function of AIT to the society, to disseminate information to the
Media: This is AIT through which information is being generated or circulated to the


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