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The purpose of this study is to examine industrial conflict and workers productivity with a study of Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State. the result of findings shows that individual conflicts in Nigerian higher institutions occurs in the forms of lockout, strike, work –to-rule and lock-in. the factors responsible for these include workers demand for improved welfare scheme, governments refusal to comply and breach of terms of settlements disputes. Such conflicts are resolved through collective bargaining, vnilateral actions of the government and appointments of mediator and conciliation. The problem in industrial conflicts administration includes the attitude of the institution authorities, government union leaders. The effect of industrial conflict in Nigeria higher institutions involves decline in productivity of all staff loss of much man-hours, laxity among students staff, deterioration of relationship between staff and government. The work recommends that the government should provide adequate funds for effective administration of Nigeria higher institutions, these will make the authorities able to provide adequate remunerations, compensation and welfare scheme for the staff. This will always ensure industrial peace in the institutions.















Title page                                                                                          i

Certification page                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                                   iv

Abstract                                                                                            v

Table of content                                                                       vi


  • Introduction

1.1     Background of the study

1.2     Statement of problem

1.3     Objectives of the study

1.4     Research Question

1.5     Statement of Hypothesis

1.6     Significance of the study

1.7     Scope of the study

1.8     Limitation of the study

1.9     Definition of terms



  • Literature Review
    • Introduction
    • Meaning of industrial conflict
    • Meaning of conflict
    • Types of conflict
    • Effect of industrial conflicts in higher institutions
    • Procedures for settling trades disputes.
    • Factors responsible for industrial conflict in higher institutions


  • Research design and methodology

3.1     Introduction

3.2     Research design

3.3     Sources / Method of data collection

3.4     Population  and sample size

3.5     Sampling techniques

3.6     Validity and reliability of measuring instrument

3.7     Method of Data analysis


  • Presentation and Analysis of data

4.1     Introduction

4.2     Presentation of data analysis

4.3     Analysis of data

4.4     Test of Hypothesis

4.5     Interpretation of result(s)


  • Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1     Introduction

5.2     Summary of findings

5.3     Conclusion

5.4     Recommendation















Industrial conflict has been defined by many authors in their perspectives. But before going in details. The meaning of conflict has to be known. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of current English defined conflicts as a situation in which people group or countries are involved in serious disagreement or arugment. The term conflict is seen or experienced in every organization made up of staff and trade unions.

Conflict is based on the incapability of goals that arises from opposing behaviours. Individual differences are bound to produce some conflict, but they will also produce the flexibility, creativity and specialization necessary for modern organization to survive. Having know what conflict is all about, industrial conflict is therefore any dispute or incompatibility of interest between employee and employer or employers and employees connected with employment or non-employment.

In the formation of the nation’s industrial policy the federal government was influenced by the country’s social and economic conditions and the standards set by the international labour organization (ILO) of which Nigeria is a member. In Nigeria, trade unions services and industrial relation department are under the federal ministry of labour and productivity they are primarily responsible for the promotion and maintenance of industrial peace and harmony in all trade disputes which have failed to settle through internal machinery designed to reach amicable settlement of disputes. The increase in strict and industrial tension could be blamed on deeprated suspicions between employers and workers as well as intra-union crises. In a bid to maximize their standard of living which often eroded by initation, workers demand higher pay and better condition of service and employer resist such request because they fear that it might reduce their profits.

The causes of inter and intra union disputes may be traced to communication gap between the official’s and member alleged misappropriation or embezzlement of unions found, arbitrary dismissal of national officers by the union, refusal to call national delegated conference as and when due, in recent years, trade dispute especially those of inter and intra union cases have resulted in litigations in the law courts. Some disputes has led to the institution of more than 40 court cases involving different trade unions. The industrial relations degree of 1996 sets the detail of law disputes between employees and trade union are to be settled. Employers and unions are required to attempt internal settlement through joint constitution and collective bargaining. Where this fails, there is provision for the declaration of formal trade dispute and for the matter to be referred to the ministry of labour and productivity. The ministry can then refer the case to the industrial arbitration panel which renders a binding decision, if any of the parties resorts to the decision. The matter will be lasting referred to the national industrial court.

In the past ten years,  the history of industrial relations in our institutions of higher learning is maintain by constant industrial actions. The first was in 1988 when the academic staff union of Nigeria universities (ASSU) embarked on a strike action against their employers. National universities commission and federal ministry of education and their individual universities. Again the academic staff unions of Nigeria polytechnic (ASSP) embarked on a three months nation-wide strike in 2013. in Nigeria, institutions of higher learning have experience so many period of industrial unrest. Trade disputes are often declared by the trades unions in these institutions. Some of the trade disputes have been resolved through internal conflict resolution while other through mediation and conciliation by a third party. Thus, administrative of industrial conflicts in Nigeria institutions of higher learning have been done through many amicable procedures.


In Nigeria, a lot of industrial conflicts, disputes have been experienced in the higher institutions  by trade union which results to high increase in strike, back-out, dismissal, law off and retrenchment section zla of trade disputes (Amendment) Decree No. 54 of 1997 provides with respect to payment of wages during strikes and lock out that.

  1. Workers shall not be entitled to any wages or other remuneration for the period of the strike.
  2. Any employer that lock out workers will pay the wages and other applicable remuneration for the period of the lock out.

Industrial conflict in the higher institution leads to some trade unions or mature staffer to feel defected and demeaned. Some officers in the institution engage in industrial conflict through strike of inability of institutions authority to meet with demand of their employee’s it can also sometimes occur as sympathy action in support of member of another institution.

In many trade unions in institution of higher learning strikes are very difficult to resolve because the legal procedures of mediation and conciliation have always proven abortive, it is also difficult to resolve industrial conflict in institution of higher learning in Nigeria. In many institutions negotiations have broken down because of the inability of the anchors at dispute to make concessions to each others demand. The stipulation of trade disputes of decree 1976 of the procedure for the settlement of trade disputes have been flouted through arbitrary use of power by government in forcefully resolving the dispute strike and lock out are resultant effects of degenerated dispute situation which can be resolved by the industrial Arbitration panel (IAP) and National industrial court (NIC) respectively.


This study was conducted to answer the following

research question.

  1. What are the ways of improving the workers productivity Federal polytechnic Oko.
  2. What are the factors responsible for trade disputes in the institutions.
  3. What are the problem of industrial conflict and it affected workers productivity in Federal Polytechnic Oko.



     Due to the rate of industrial conflict and trade disputes among the trade union in the higher institution in Nigeria, it has been the desire of the researcher to make people know some of her discoveries and how it can lead to conflict resolution the objectives of the study among other things include:

  1. To suggest ways of improving the workers productivity Federal polytechnic Oko.
  2. To examine the factors responsible for trade disputes in the institutions.
  3. To examine the problem of industrial conflict and it affected workers productivity in Federal Polytechnic Oko.



Obviously the significant of the study has been known from the background of the study, but it is very essential to state the importance of this project for clear understanding. This research is significant in many aspects firstly, it will highlight the various factors that often lead to industrial conflicts and also explain the nature of industrial disputes in our institutions, why there has always been break down in negotiation why industrial conflict administrative continuous to be difficult.

The research finding will therefore be useful to the institution authority because it will help then take decisions that will forestall the emergence of situations which will create industrial conflicts. Also, it will help them know how to approach industrial conflicts with a  view to settle them amicably.

The finding will make contribution towards successful.

Resolution of industrial conflicts. It will also be useful to union representatives as it highlights why industrial conflicts after negotiations persist because of their wrong approach to settlements.

Besides, the finding will make all parties in disputes to understand the need for amicable resolution of industrial conflicts or disputes through concessions and compromise. It will make employers, union representative and union member understand the importance of industrial peace as it helps in the development of healthy industrial relations and national development.

Finally, it will be useful to make many students who will carry out a related study in future as the information provided will be very helpful.



     The scope of this study is very wide, but the researcher only focuses on industrial conflict and workers productivity as regards to federal polytechnic Oko, Anambra State. it also covers the area of why industrial conflict and trade disputes persist after negotiating and resolution through conciliation mediation, concessions.



In carrying out this research, the researcher encountered some difficulties which acted as a limitation to the successful completion and generalization of the work.

These difficulties are;

Finance: The financial problem experienced in the course of this work limited me from getting more textbooks, journals, seminar materials, magazines relating to industrial conflicts and its administrative.

Time  Constraint: This research work was carried out during lecture period with all it’s burning of mid night candle including other problems thereby necessitating the disruption of academic assessment. Attitude of some respondent unwillingness and sometimes burnt refusal to release necessary information.

Library insufficiency: The insufficient textbooks at the school library also constitutes a problem to the researcher, the library lack books relating to the research topic.

Work overload: The pressing need to attend lectures coupled with the fact that department work is enormous it constitutes against a thorough and highly intensive research work.


1.8   Operationalization/ Definition of Terms

Collective Bargaining: This is the process of negotiation, drafting administration and interpretation of written agreements between employers and employees, over conditions and terms of employment for a period of time.

Grievance: According to Ubeku (1995:7), grievance is defined as real or imagined complaint by an employee against his employee based on the alleged misinterpretation, misapplication of the terms and conditions of employment.

Industrial conflict: This is any dispute or incompatibility of interest between employer(s) and employee (s) connected with employment or non-employment.

Performance: This is the act of working or doing something well or badly. Also, it is the ability to carry out piece of work, task or duty.

Strike: This is the cessation of work or reducing of speed in work deliberately as a result of various reasons such as poor conditions of work, poor remuneration etc.

Trade Dispute: According to trade dispute degree of 1976, it is a disagreement between workers over rep0resentation of between the workers and management.

Union: A group of people or any combination of employees or employers who comes together in order to determine and regulate their welfare or goals.

1.9   Organization of the study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for any understanding as follows: chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the background of the study, statement of the problems, objectives of the study, research question, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and work and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers dealing on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrates on the data collection band analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and recommendation made of the study.


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