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Table of contents
Title page i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Table of contents vi
List of Tables vii
Abstract ix
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1.Background of the Study 1
1.2.Statement of the Problem 2
1.3.Objectives of the Study 3
1.4.Research Questions 3
1.5.Research Hypothesis 3
1.6.Scope of the Study 3
1.7.Significance of the Study 4
1.8.Operational Definition of Terms 4
Chapter two: Literature Review
2.1. Introduction 6
2.2. Review of Concepts 6
2.2.1. Concept of Radio Broadcasting 6
2.2.2. Concept of Empowerment 10
2.2.3. Concept of Economy 13
2.3. Review of Related Studies 13
2.4. Theoretical Framework 17
2.5. Summary 21
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1. Introduction 22
3.2. Research Design 22
3.3. Population of the Study 22
3.4. Sampling Technique/ Sample 23
3.5. Description of the Research Instrument 23
3.6. Validity and Reliability of Data Gathering Instrument 24
3.7. Method of Data Collection 24
3.8. Method of Data Analysis 24
Chapter Four: Data Presentation and Discussion of Findings
4.1. Introduction 26
4.2. Data Presentation and Analysis 26
4.3. Testing of Hypothesis 38
4.4. Discussion of Findings 39
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1. Introduction 44
5.2. Summary of Findings 44
5.3. Conclusion 44
5.4. Recommendation 45
5.5. Suggestion for Further Studies 45
Reference 46
Appendix a 49
Appendix b 50
List of Tables
Table 1: Sex.
Table 2 : Marital Status.
Table 3: Occupation.
Table 4: Income level per month.
Table 5: Age.
Table 6: Radio set Ownership.
Table 7: ESBS Radio listenership.
Table 8: ESBS Radio reception.
Table 9: Likeness for ESBS Radio.
Table 10: Exposure of Agbani dwellers to ESBS Radio Programmes.
Table 11: Effectiveness of ESBS Radio programmes.
Table 12: Discussion of issues on ESBS Radio station .
Table 13: Popularity of ESBS Radio .
Table 14: Involvement of Agbani community to the ESBS Radio.
Table 15: believability ESBS Radio programmes.
Table 16: Provision of information by ESBS Radio.
Table 17: Economic empowerment activity learnt from the ESBS Radio.
Table 18: ESBS Radio plays any significant role in the economic empowerment.
Table 19: Development in Agbani.
Table 20: Economic needs addressed on ESBS Radio Programmes.
This study is aimed at finding out hoe ESBS Radio has helped in the economic
empowerment of Agbani community and to find out the possible ways to improve the
economic standard of the dwellers of Agbani community. This study was based on uses and
gratification theory. The researcher consulted relevant literature to raise secondary data while
survey method was used to generate primary data for analysis. The data generated using
questionnaire was tested using Chi-square goodness of fit test formula. Data was presented in
table and extensively discussed to enable the researcher draw her conclusion and make
recommendations. Based on the result of the findings, it was concluded that ESBS Radio has
made some effort to impact positively on the economic empowerment of Agbani community,
although it is not farfetched.
1.1 Background of the Study
The potency of radio has given credence to its use as a tool for grassroot development.
Nwuneli (1986), explains that after a decade of research on the relationship between
various media of mass communication and socio-economic variables, it is now a
generally held belief among development communication scholars that broadcasting
particularly radio- could be the most effective media for transferring information on
various social change programmes from government and other institutions to the masses
living in the developing nations of the world of which Nigeria is a part.
Radio seems to have an edge over the other media of communication, Nwuneli (1986)
vividly paints a picture with these comparisons; the print media has to contend with the
problem of high illiteracy and as such is considered limited to educated people in urban
areas as opposed to radio’s flexibility in language use and wide coverage.
The cost of purchasing a television automatically excludes many Nigerian’s from the use
of the medium as opposed to radio which is affordable, available and portable.
Thus, exposure to radio is far greater and effective than any other mass medium due to
the fact that radio lends itself to the predominant oral culture of the people. He further
asserts that this is true especially if programmes are produced in the predominant local
language of the target audience.
Moemeka (1998, P133) revealed that “the UNESCO declared in 1957 that there was
convincing evidence from projects in many parts of the world , that the mass media can
be effectively applied to the development of resources to meet basic economic, social,
political, educational, and cultural needs of the nations. These efforts were of course
centred on the use of radio”
Nsi (1993) reinforces the above when he articulates that there is something about radio
that makes it appropriate for integrated rural development. He reviewed rural
development in the light if self help efforts through radio programmes on; farming,
education, flow of information, and health care, including the much needed family
planning programmes and not as the need to focus only on the government efforts at
providing rural areas with necessary infrastructure.
Moemeka (1981, P42), adds that “ in the performance of its task, radio feeds the people
with information about what is likely to be, thus making it possible for individuals and
communities to re-adjust themselves in ways best suited to their situations.
The role of radio and its programming in development has been evident over the years
even at present.
Enugu state broadcasting service (ESBS) was established for effective information
dissemination in all parts of the state. It was to bridge the information gap between the
ruralites and urban areas and to stimulate interest between government and rural folks.
This is the reason for dedicated rural economic programmes like ESBS/IMT UNIAIR etc.
These programmes exist in electronic media but nothing has been done to ascertain the
effect that would justify the relevance of these programmes. It is in the light of the above
that this study is designed to measure the effectiveness of ESBS economic programmes
among dwellers of Agbani community of Enugu state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The importance of radio cannot be over-emphasized; globally, nationally, and locally, as
it performs many functions in the society. It is pertinent to see the extent to which ESBS
radio have impacted on economic empowerment in Agbani community
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following objectives were relevant to this study;
I. The objectives of this study are to know the extent to which Agbani dwellers are
exposed to ESBS radio.
II. To find out if Agbani dwellers accord credibility to economic empowerment
messages from ESBS.
III. To know if the information received from ESBS radio have any impact on the
economic empowerment of their community.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher used the following research questions for the study;
I. To what extent are Agbani dwellers exposed to ESBS economic empowerment
programmes by Agbani dwellers?
II. What is the believability rate of ESBS economic empowerment programmes by
Agbani dwellers?
III. To what extent can ESBS radio help to improve the economic empowerment of
Agbani community?
1.5. Research Hypothesis
The researcher used alternative hypothesis for the study.
H1: ESBS Radio programmes are effective in the economic empowerment of Agbani
1.6. Scope of the Study
This study is restricted to Agbani community in Enugu state. It is further going to be
narrowed down during data collection to specific areas within the community.
1.7. Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the study will be very important in many repects. This study is therefore
aimed at highlighting the influence of radio on economic empowerment of Nigeria. it will
provide a sufficient resource materials for further studies in the field related studies,
thereby extending the frontiers of knowledge. To radio producers and presenters, the
findings of the work will aid in the proper implementation of economic empowerment
grass root programmes and campaigns. To the government, this study will serve as a
platform for planning and making of relevant policies that border on the economy and
informing the ruralities.
And finally, it will serve as evaluation reference materials for general study of
communication development study and scholars.
1.8. Definition of Terms
The terms were operationally defined.
This means Enugu state broadcasting service. It is the radio that operates in the
Agbani community. It is the radio that gives out economic empowerment
messages to the people.
ii. Rural areas
Rural area is a place where rural people live. Agbani community is a rural area
that was studied.
iii. Radio programmes
These are programmes designed by the ESBS radio and which is to be transferred
among everybody in Agbani community.
iv. Economic empowerment
This involves stirring up in the people of Agbani the necessity to work and create
wealth for them to sustain a good life.
v. Poverty
Poverty here refers to the standard of living of the people of Agbani community
and other rural areas. It is a life of lack, insufficiency, rejection and need of


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