TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Certification page – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval page – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – v
Table of content – – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – 6
1.3 Research questions – – – – – – 8
1.4 Objectives of the study – – – – – – 8
1.5 Significance of the study- – – – – – 9
1.6 Definition of terms – – – – – – 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 11
2.1 Review of Related Literature- – – – – – 11
2.2 Review of Related Theories- – – – – – 19
2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – 32
2.4 Empirical Review – – – – – – – – 38
2.5 Research Hypotheses – – – – – – – 40
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 41
3.1 Research design – – – – – – – 42
3.2 Area of study – – – – – – – 42
3.3 Scope of the study – – – – – – – 43
3.4 Population of study – – – – – – 43
3.5 Sample and sampling technique – – – – 43
3.6 Instruments for data collection – – – – 44
3.7 Methods of data collection – – – – – 45
3.8 Method of data analysis – – – – – – 46
3.9 Software used – – – – – – – 46
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 48
4.2 Analysis of data – – – – – – – 48
4.2.1 Questionnaire distribution and return rate – – – 48
4.1.2 Demographic characteristics of respondents – – – 48
4.2.3 Analysis of substantive issues – – – – – 51
4.3 Testing of hypotheses – – – – – – 54
4.4 Discussion of results – – – – – – 56
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
5.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 57
5.1 Summary of research findings – – – – – 57
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 58
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 58
5.4 Limitation of study – – – – – – 59
5.5 Area for further research – – – – – – 59
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Age of respondents – – – – – – – 48
Table 2: Sex of respondents – – – – – – – 49
Table 3: Marital status of respondents – – – – – 49
Table 4: Religion of respondents – – – – – – 50
Table 5: Educational status of respondents – – – – 50
Table 6: Influence of gender on security awareness – – – 51
Table 7: Influence of age on security awareness – – – – 51
Table 8: Influence of age on security awareness – – – – 52
Table 9: Awareness of Government Agent – – – – – 52
Table 10: Awareness of Security – – – – – – 53
Table 11: Effectiveness of Security Agencies – – – – – 53
This research was conducted to examine security awareness of people living in Enugu North L.G.A. The purpose of the study is to comprehend the level of security awareness by involving the demographic aspects such as gender, age, educational background and religion. The variables used are security awareness, age and gender. Moreover, the method used in the research is a quantitative descriptive research as the basic foundation for conducting research. The population consists of the people living in Enugu North, with the total sample of 400 respondents but only 375 questionnaires were retrieved. Simple Random Sampling was adopted as the sampling technique for thus study, Taro Yamane was used to get the total sample size and Chi Square was used to test the hypotheses, while SPSS Statistics Tool Version 2018. The results of the research show that according to the factor of gender, the men are more aware of security than the women. However, there are the obvious differences according to gender, age, religion and educational background through some items such as privacy setting, limitation of information access, privacy of education, sensitive issue report, information sharing and response to threats.
1.1 Background of the Study
Human security is essentially categorized into seven (7) aspects. These include economic security, food security, health security, environmental security, community security, personal security, and political security. This study focused on community security in order to properly explore the influence of Gender and Age on security awareness of Enugu North LGA of Enugu state.
Community security covers the conservation of traditions and cultures, languages and commonly held values. It also includes abolishment of ethnic discrimination, prevention of ethnic conflicts and protection of indigenous people. The United Nation (1973) security arm defined security as “the defense of territories from external attacks, the protection of communities and individuals from internal violence; the need for more human centered approach to security is reinforced by the continuing danger that weapons of mass destructions, most notably nuclear weapons, pose to humanity, their very name reveals their scope and their intended objectives, if they were ever used”.
Nigeria as a nation has been faced with divergent security challenges over the years. Unfortunate Nigerians have been victims of Boko Haram attacks particularly in the North East region where innocent people are attacked, kidnapped, raped, and sometimes killed, properties destroyed and stolen. Also North Central region comprising of states like Plateau State, Kaduna State, Benue State etc, have suffered attacks by kidnappers, thieves, armed robbery leading to loss of lives and properties indiscriminately. South East and South-South States have equally been bedeviled with Kidnapping, rapping, oil pipes vandalism, herdsmen/farmers clashes leading to loss of lives and properties. No region in Nigeria has been left out in this wind of human security challenges in almost every part of the country.
Insecurity in Nigeria has exposed Nigerians to fear of losing their lives, properties and other valuable. Young women are rapped and some others, including male sexes are kidnapped for ritual sacrifices by ritualists. Homes are attacked by armed robbers at will and roads are blocked by highway robbers who lay siege on unsuspecting commuters on the highways, dispossess travelers of their items, rape women and even kill some others.
The residents of Enugu state are equally exposed to various insecurity vices some of which have been mentioned above. Young women especially, are lured into human trafficking and rape. There have also been cases of armed robbery and vandalism in this state. Herdmen-farmers clashes have also been a challenge in this LGA. It is very imperative for people to be security conscious in order to check the incessant causes of rapping, kidnapping ,ritual killings, armed robbery and the like, which have bedeviled the Nigeria people in general and Enugu North LGA residents in particular. The need for people to have security awareness and understand their environment will help to create check on the activities of these satanic agents thereby reducing it to minimal level.
Influence of Gender and Age on security awareness is arguably a construct that will help to keep the residents informed and be able to check the excesses of some of these insecurity vices. The need for people, families, societies, regions, nations and the world over to co-habit peacefully with each other has constituted major focus of governance and policy makers both in African nations and other nations of the world.
This is so because no meaningful development can be achieved in a society bedeviled with security threats and challenges. Basically, security dimensions are many and very broad; I shall limit my research work to human security in other to comprehensively do a detailed research work on this topic.
Human security can no longer be more understood in environmental protection, democratization, disarmament and respect for human right and the rule of law. The demand faced also reflect the going consensus that collective security can no longer be narrowly define as the absence of armed conflicts be it between or within states, gross abuse of human rights, the large scale displacement of civilian population, international terrorism, aids pandemic, drug and arms trafficking and environmental disaster present a direct threat to human security, forcing society to adopt a much more coordinated approach to stem security threats.
It should be noted that human security embraces far more than the absence of violent conflicts, it encompasses human rights, good governance access to education and health care and ensuring that each individual has opportunity and choices to fulfill his or her potentials. Every step in this direction is also a step towards reducing poverty, achieving the freedom of future generations to inherit a healthy natural environment. These are the inter-related building blocks in human; and therefore natural security.
To this end, it is noteworthy to state that this study is on influence of Gender and Age on security awareness, domicile in Enugu North LGA of Enugu State in Nigeria. While most people are born either male or female, they are taught appropriate norms and behaviors including how they should interact with others of the same or opposite sex within households, communities and work places. When individuals or groups do not fit established gender norms they often face stigma, discriminatory practices or social exclusion – all of which adversely affect health. It is important to be sensitive to different identities that do not necessarily fit into binary male or female sex categories.
Gender norms, roles and relations influence people susceptibility to different security challenges and security awareness. In this study therefore, Gender is one of the independent variable to predict security awareness in Enugu North LGA in Enugu state. It is therefore a conceptual framework. People do realize the importance of security awareness efforts. Thus the need for information security is well established, but there is inadequate research on the behavioral aspects of gender and age awareness Initiative (Schhultz, 2004). Despite the understanding that awareness is important, It is not beyond doubt, whether a clear message is being communicated to the users in the first place (Gaunt, 2000).
Information and knowledge available to individuals at any given time shapes their level of security awareness to a large extent. Technologies meant to provide security ultimately depend on the effective implementation and operation of these technologies by people. This means that societies are dependent on people to achieve a secure environment. Since humans are seen as the weakest link in the information security chain (Schneier, 2000, Stanton et al 2003). This study seeks to determine the extents to which gender and age which is independent variables predicts security awareness of the people of Enugu North LGA in Enugu state of Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Previous research work focused on the influence of gender on security awareness. This research work seeks to test the combined effects of Gender and Age on security awareness. Security awareness determines to a large extent the attainment of peaceful living by the people in any society, including the Enugu North LGA in Enugu State. Lack of information and awareness of threats to peaceful living tends to expose more people to security challenges. When people are informed on how to live peacefully, the society will be a better place. Most of the research done concentrates on the importance of awareness initiatives Trompeter & Eloff (2001), Eloff & Labuschange (2003). Some of these researches, are not necessarily based on theoretical models, but instead simply provides guidance on what method to use. Sommers & Robinson (2004) showed how an awareness video and a quiz can be used to train students at a university. However, the researchers admitted that they had no way of measuring the effectiveness of this intervention. A video was simply shown and respondents were required to take a quiz afterwards. McCoy& Fowler (2004) also deployed a security awareness campaign at a university campus. They too however, did not use any metrics and found this to be a difficult task to carry out- thus implying the importance of this piece of research. It is therefore intended that findings of this research will be useful to government, policy makers, societies and organizations towards creating an informed population that will help check the excesses of insecurity.
1.3 Research Questions
To guide the discussion of this work it is pertinent to ask the following questions:
- To what extent does gender influence security awareness?
- To what extent does age of individual influence security awareness?
- What impact does an individual’s age and gender have on security awareness?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this research is to assess the influence of Gender and Age on security awareness of the Enugu North residents. The following specific objectives have been identified to guide the study
- To assess the influence of Gender on security awareness
- To assess how age influence security awareness
- To examine the impact of an individual’s gender and age on security awareness.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study has both theoretical and practical significance.
Theoretical Significance: Previous studies did not asses the combined influence of Gender and Age on security awareness. Therefore the findings of the study shall add to literature the combined role of Gender and Age on security awareness which may serve the basis for future research in the related areas.
Practical Significance: Because society is faced with divergent security threats ranging from terrorism, Boko Haram, Herdsmen and farmer clashes, etc the government shall formulate policies that will create awareness of the people which will help them be vigilant and create a secured society.
This study will help security groups like the police, soldiers, State Security Service, the vigilante and the community leaders to be alert within their areas of jurisdiction thereby stemming and reducing security challenges to manageable minimum.
- Definition of Terms
Age: Means a span of years or length of time during which some event occurred. It is the length of time during which a being or thing has existed, length of life or existence to the time spoken of or referred to.
Gender: Gender by definition refers to the socially constructed characteristics of women and men – such as norms roles, and relationships of and between groups of women and men. It varies from society to societies and can be changed. While most people are born either male or female, they are taught appropriate norms and behaviors including how they should interact with others of the same or opposite sex within households, communities and work places.
Human Security: The state of being safe, stable and free from dander or threat.
Influence: The capacity of power of persons or things to be a compelling force on or produce effects on the actions, behavior, opinion, etc of others.
Insecurity: A feeling of uncertainty; a lack of confidence or anxiety about yourself.
Security Awareness: Means the knowledge and attitude members of the society or community possess regarding the protection of lives and properties of the community in which they live.
Security: Protection of a person, building, organization or country, against threats such as crime or attacks by foreign countries.
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