Table of Content
Title page i
Certification Page iii
Table of Content vii
List of Content x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 3
1.4 Research Question 4
1.5 Scope of the Study 4
1.6 Significance of the Study 4
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERAURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Review of concepts 6
2.2.1 The concept of censorship 6
2.2.2 The concept of mass media 13
2.2.3 The concept of news 15
2.3. Review of related studies 17
2.4.Theoretical framework 19
2.5 Summary 20
CHAPTER THREE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
3.1 Introduction 21
3.2 Research Design 21
3.3 Population of the Study 21
3.4 Sampling Technique/ Sampling 21
3.5 Description of the Research Instrument 22
3.6 Validity of data Gathering Instrument 22
3.7 Method of Data Collection 22
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 22
CHAPTER FOUR; DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction 23
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis 24
4.3 Discussion of Findings 38
CHAPER FIVE; SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 44
5.2 Summary of Findings 44
5.3 Conclusion 45
5.4 Recommendations 45
5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies 45
Appendix A 47
Appendix B 48
LIST OF TABLES
DEMOGRAPHIC DATA TABLES
Table 1; Demographic Data on Sex 24
Table 2; Age range 24
Table 3; Marital status 25
Table 4; Educational qualifications 25
Table 5; How long have you worked in Nasarawa Broadcasting Service 26
Table 6; what cadre are you 27
Data from survey table
Table 7; meaning of censorship 28
Table 8; is censorship practiced in Nasarawa Broadcasting Service? 28
Table 9; to what extent is news censored in NasarawaBroadcasting Service? 29
Table 10; what form of news censorship is practiced in Nasarawa Broadcasting service? 30
Table 11; which of the following measures have you experienced? 30
Table 12; what is the reason given for news censorship in your organization? 31
Table 13; what do you think encourages news censorship am0ng journalist? 32
Table 14; do you think news censorship can affect the performance of a media house? 33
Table 15; if yes, how? 33
Table 16; Does news censorship in whatever form practiced influence objectivity, accuracy and
balance in news 34
Table 17; how does news censorship influence news objectivity accuracy and balance? 35
Table 18; has news censorship influence your performance in anyway? 35
Table 19; if yes, in what way? 36
Table 20; In the long run what will be the effect of this social phenomenon? 36
Table 21; would you suggest that news censorship should not be practiced no matter the reasons
Table 22; what steps should be taken to minimize news censorship? 38 28
The aim of this study was to analysis the influence of News Censorship on the Performance of
Media Houses in Nigeria. The aim of this study was achieved using the survey research method.
Subjects were drawn from staff of Nasarawa Broadcasting service using the purposive sampling
technique. Five research questions were used in the study. The findings of the study showed that,
news censorship has negative influence on the performance media houses, news objectivity,
accuracy and balance and on reporters and editors. However, recommendations were by the
researchers that reporters and editors should be given the freedom to gather and disseminate
news without prior and post censorship and self-censorship for the interest of the public and for
news objectivity, accuracy and balance; which should be priority of every media house.
However, this freedom should be matched with maximum responsibility to ensure continuous
public and government trust in the media. The researcher suggested that further study should be
made using more refined tools, larger sample size and another geographical area that will give
the study a wider scope and empirical lift.
1.1 Background of the study
The primary function of the mass media is to provide information, escapism, and
entertainment, give self-worth and link different societies to other societies. (Ndolo, 2006).In any
country, the media is expected to be the voice of the voiceless and to seek justice, which is the
true nature of journalism.
The media, in the performance of its duty is expected to be neutral, objective and balanced.
However, achieving this has proven to be difficult due to some factors, the most significant of
all, being censorship of the media.
In Nigeria, as well as other developing countries, freedom is still elusive based on historical
information. The media began without any definite statutory control. For instance, the first
documented newspaper „IweIroyin (1859)‟ was published without a laid down law by the state
regulating the activities of publishers. Although this unregulated situation did not remain
unchecked as the government grew increasingly unsettled by media content. It experienced
occasional interruption by the then colonial government. This unrest increased with the
emergence of nationalist papers and the need for media independence became inevitable.
Since the attainment of independence in 1960, the mass media have been attributed to extralegal control measures imposed on them to restrict their social responsibilities. It was more felt
during the military regime.
Since 1999, the role the media played in ushering in democracy cannot be over-emphasized as
they helped to inform, educate and serve as watchdog over the society. In spite of this, it is
obvious that the disposition of the society towards the media have not been favourable. Hence,
there is need for this research, to find out the extent and influence of news censorship on the
performance of media.
Historical Background of Nasarawa Broadcasting Service
In 1959, when the then premier of Western region of Nigeria established a broadcasting
station. It has become the practice in Nigeria for states to own their broadcasting stations.
Desirous of the need to provide social service by way of educating, enlightening, entertaining
and informing the general public of government programmes and activities, the Nasarawa State
government enacted an Edict No 19 of 1998, establishing Nasarawa Broadcasting Service NBS.
Nasarawa Broadcasting Service had its pioneers staff deployed from Plateau Radio and
Television (PRTV) Jos. The station‟s name was suggested by this pioneering staff and endorsed
by the first military administrator Late Wing Commander Abdullah Ibrahim. Nasarawa
Broadcasting Service started transmission in February 1997 at the temporary state secretariat
along Shendam Road Lafia.
Nasarawa Broadcasting Service is a two in one broadcast outfit (Radio and Television)
and operates on a 2kilowatts transmitter (Itelco product) supplied by Kris OnyeKwuluje of
Lagos. Nasarawa Broadcasting Service was found to be using the same frequency as Hot 93.5
FM in Abuja and was letter changed to 97.1 FM by NBC in 1997.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In many countries of the world, particularly the developing countries, the media have
freedom to publish or broadcast whatever is in the best interest of the society. In developing
countries like Nigeria, despite the fact that it has several laws, especially Section 39 Sub-Section
(1) of 1999 constitution, which gave right to the media and stipulates that:
“Every person shall be entitled to freedom of expression,
Including freedom to hold opinions and to receive and
Impact ideas and information without interference.”
Inspite of what the constitution has stipulated, government and other influential
individuals still infringe on those rights and hinder the delivery of news objectivity. The question
this study seeks to answer is, how has news censorship by government influence the performance
of Nasarawa State Broadcasting Service?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1. To find out the extent, reporters and editors at Nasarawa Broadcasting Service are faced with
problems of news censorship.
2. To determine the various forms of news censorship at the Nasarawa Broadcasting Service.
3. To find out the reason behind the censorship of news at Nasarawa Broadcasting Service.
4. To find out how news censorship has affected the performance of Nasarawa Broadcasting
Service with regards to the dissemination of news to its audience.
5. To proffer solutions to problems of news censorship at Nasarawa Broadcasting Service.
1.4 Research Questions
1. To what extent are reporters and editors at Nasarawa Broadcasting Service faced with
the problem of news censorship?
2. What are the forms of news censorship at Nasarawa Broadcasting Service?
3. What are the reasons behind the censorship of news at Nasarawa Broadcasting Service?
4. How does news censorship affect the performance of Nasarawa Broadcasting Service in
the dissemination of information to its audience?
5. What are the solutions to the problems of news censorship at Nasarawa Broadcasting
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study is limited to Nasarawa State Broadcasting Service. The study concentrated on
the staff (reporters and editors) of this media house. The findings of this study could be
generalized to include other government owned media houses, bearing in mind that Nasarawa
Broadcasting Service is also a government owned media house.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study stands to offer opportunity for the following group of people: media houses,
government, journalists, lawmakers and mass communication students.
Through this study, the government will reconsider reasons that make objectivity and
accuracy in news content imperative to the development of Nigeria. Journalist will see reasons
why self-censorship should be shunned and more importantly, media house will need to come up
with credible and reliable news and information for the survival of the organization.
Law makers also will review laws that promote acts of news censorship, finally this study
will act as a guide to students of mass communication undertaking study on similar work.
1.8 Operational Definition of Significant Terms
Mass Media: it is the channel through which information; news, opinion and others are
disseminated around the world and received by the categories of mass media namely: electronic
media which comprises of radio, television and internet and print media which includes
newspaper, magazine, journals and books.
Censorship: It stands for monitoring spoken or written information that goes into the media of
communication. And punishment meted for anybody who intend to inform without conforming
to prescribed rules or procedures designed by ruling powers.
Control: The limitation of the freedom the media has in gathering and disseminating news.
News: anything timely that interest a number of people.
Influence: The power of news censorship on the performance of the media.
Broadcasting: it is the dissemination of messages and information over electronic media.
Performance: The ability of the media house (NBS) to gather and disseminate information
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