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This study investigated the influence of pre primary education on pupils academic performance in Atiba Local Government Area of Oyo State in an attempt to achieve this goals, some research questions were raised concerning academic performance of pupils. Relate literature were also reviewed, both the descriptive and sample survey research method were used. Five (5) public primary and private primary schools were randomly selected within Atiba Local government Area of Oyo State. Simple percentage was used to analyze the result of findings of this research work. The study revealed that pre primary school attendance positively affect pupils self control in the third grade as measured by behavior such as attending, effort class participation and discipline. It was recommended among others that pre- primary education in the country can only be achieved if the policy is consistently implemented













  • Introduction

1.1    Background to the Study

The value and functionality of any educational system lie in its ability to actualize the goals of education. In educational systems, world over, the examination process make the difference. The goals of national educational system and indeed national development become elusive if examination ethics is not encouraged and instituted. Till data, examinations still remain the best tool for an objective assessment and evaluation of what learners have acquired after a period of schooling. Thus any action that undermines examination poses a great threat to the validity and reliability of examination results and certification.

Unfortunately, the process of examination in Nigeria’s secondary schools leaves so much to be desired. This is because of the phenomenon of examination malpractice that has become endemic educational system. The examination malpractice Act (1999) explains examination malpractice as any act of omission or commission by a person who in anticipation of, before, during or after any examination fraudulently secure any unfair advantage for himself or any other person in such a manner that contravenes the rule and regulations to the extent of undermining the validity, reliability, authenticity of the examination and ultimately the integrity of the certificates issued.

Although examination malpractice is neither a recent phenomenon nor is it peculiar to Nigeria or Africa, its rate of increase is a global issue. Studies have revealed four different general areas that comprise academic. These are cheating by using authorized materials during academic activity, fabrication of information, plagiarism and helping other student engage in cheating (facilitating). In an anonymous survey of students at a major university, over two third reported cheating at least once. In Nigeria the alarming rate of increase in examination malpractice in secondary schools in Nigeria calls for concern from all stakeholders in the education sector.

Accusing fingers have been pointed at teachers, school heads, parents, students, examination officials and even security agents as those responsible for examination malpractice in the school system. The examination process has become endangered to the extent that certification has almost lost its credibility in the country. Certificates no longer seem to reflect skill and certification. Hence the objective of this study is to investigate school factors as determinants of examination malpractices.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Examination malpractice is any illegal act committed by a student single handedly or in collaboration with others like fellow students, parents, teachers, supervisors, invigilators, printers and anybody or group of people before, during or after examinations in order to obtain undeserved marks or grades. The means of perpetrating this illegal act may range from brining in un-authorized materials to the examination hall, disrupting the conduct of examinations, buying examination papers, changing of grades after examination and impersonation to using money or candidates body to earn marks.

Examination malpractice in Nigeria and indeed in many countries of the world is already a cankerworm. It has attained an alarming proportion and also endemic to educational systems all over the world. The problem is hydra-headed and has defied most recommended solution. The categories of people involved in examination malpractices are many and the forms of examination malpractices are almost without end. It takes place at all educational levels, it is a concern to all stakeholder in education and it takes place in both internal and external examinations, children, youths and adults are involved. Hence this research investigates school factors as determinants of examination malpractices.

1.3    Purpose of the Study

This research work seeks to investigate school factors as a determinant of examination malpractices in senior secondary school, while the specific objectives include the following:-

  • To determine the level of examination malpractice in secondary schools.
  • To examine the impact of examination malpractices on educational attainment in Ogbomoso North Local Government
  • To look into school factors in relation to examination malpractice in schools
  • To check the menace of examination malpractices in public school in Ogbomoso North Local Government.



1.4    Significance of the Study

This research work is significant in the following ways:

  • It will help to curb the problem of examination malpractices in secondary school
  • It will help curriculum planner to plan curriculum that will curb examination malpractices
  • It will help to develop good reading habits towards passing examination
  • It will assist the stakeholder to guard against the menace of examination malpractices.

1.5    Research Question

Hypothesis I

Ho– there is no significant relationship between school factors and student academic performance.

H1 – there is significant relationship between school factors and student academic performance.

Hypothesis II

Ho– there is no significant relationship between examination malpractice and student academic performance.

H1 – there is significant relationship between school factors and student academic performance.

Hypothesis III

Ho– there is no significant relationship between school factors and examination malpractices.

H1 – there is significant relationship between school factors and student academic performance.

1.6    Scope of the Study

This research work is limited to investigate schools factors as determinants of examination malpractices in senior secondary schools in Ogbomoso North local government and also examine various problems militating against the success of students in economics examination.

The study will be conducted in five secondary schools in Ogbomoso North local government.

  1. Anglican Grammar School, Ogbomoso
  2. Nurudeen Grammar School, Ogbomoso
  • Seun High School, Ogbomoso
  1. Ori-Oke Community High School, Ogbomoso
  2. Girls High School, Ogbomoso

1.7    Definition of Terms

The following terms are operationally defined in this study.

School:- An institution dedicated to teaching and learning

Examination:- A formal test involving answering written or oral questions with no or limited access to textbooks or the like.

Examination Malpractice:- Improper or unethical conduct by a professional or official person  a formal test involving answering written or oral question.

Academic Fraud:- Any act of deception carried out for the purpose of unfair, undeserved or unlawful gain having an aptitude for study.

School Success:- The achievement of one’s aim or goal in an institution dedicated to teaching and learning.

School  Characteristics:- Being or distinguishing feature of a person or thing in a school.




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