TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Dedication – – – – – – – – – ii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – iii
Table of contents – – – – – – – iv
Background of study – – – – – – – 1
Introduction – – – – – – – – – 1
Statement of problem – – – – – – – 3
Purpose of study – – – – – – – – 4
Significance of study – – – – – – – 4
Scope of study- – – – – – – – – 5
Review of related literature – – – – – – 5
Theoretical background – – – – – – – 10
2.1 Viewing conditions – – – – – – – 10
Observer and visual acuity – – – – – – 11
Those relating to the illuminator – – – – – – 14
2.2 Features of illuminator boxes – – – – – – 16
2.3 How to carry quality control test for illuminator – – – 17
Direct assessment of surface perspex screen of illuminator – – 18
Assessment of the surface perspex screen of illuminator using black card. 19
2.4 Care of illuminators – – – – – – – 21
- Materials use in construction of illuminator box – – 21
Plastic – – – – – – – – – – 21
Metals – – – – – – – – 22
2.6 Electrical components – – – – – – – 23
A rechargeable battery – – – – – – 24
A switch – – – – – – – – – 28
Electrical wire – – – – – – – – 33
A choke – – – – – – – – – 33
Transformer – – – – – – – – 35
Materials and methods – – – – – – 37
3.1 Preliminary steps – – – – – – – 37
3.2 Choice of design – – – – – – – 37
3.3 Fabrication of the illuminator housing – – – 38
The head: – – – – – – – – – 38
Components and systems required: – – – – – 39
3.4 Machinery used in this contruction – – – – 39
3.5 Sources of materials – – – – – – 40
Other materials required and reasons – – – — – 41
3.6 Fabrication procedure – – – – – – 42
Plate marking and cutting – – – – – – 42
Folding of plate – – – – – – – – 44
Welding – – – – – – – – – 47
Drilling – – – – – – – – – 51
Filling – – – – – – – – – 51
Painting – – – – – – – – – 51
Fabrication of the perspex screen. – – – – – 51
Materials used in the production of the screen – – – 51
Procedure – – – – – – – – – 52
3.7 Voltage regulator circuit – – – – – – 52
Circuit operation – – – – – – – – 53
The stand and base – – – – – – – 54
4.1 Research findings/ quality control tests – – – – 55
4.1.1 Uniformity of the intensity of illuminator – – – 55
Determination of the uniformity of the intensity of ilumination. – 58
Procedures: – – – – – – – – – 58
- Measuring the temperature of the surface
over a period of time. – – – – – – 59
Quality control test for maximum discharging time – –
Summary of results – – – – – – 64
Recommendation from the study – – – – – 64
Area of further studies – – – – – – – 65
Limitations of study – – – – – – – 65
Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 66
References – – – – – – – – – 67
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Radiographic viewing box is an illuminator use in viewing radiographs. Proper viewing conditions are very important when interpreting a radiograph. The viewing condition can enhance or degrade the subtle detail of the radiograph14. Before beginning the evaluation of radiograph, the viewing equipment and area should be considered. The area should be clean and free of distracting materials, magnifying aids, and film makers should be close at hand. Its function being to improves subject contrast of a radiographic image by enhancing the visualization of radiographs without which a radiographic image even with a good objectives contrast may not be well interpreted due to difference in perception of radiographic contrast by different observers9. X-ray illuminators have found increasing use in recent years as a tool for diagnosing medical problem.
Since the discovery of x-ray in 1895 by William roentgen in Germany, many x-ray equipment and accessories have evolved, all aiming at proper radiation protection and adequate diagnosis of illnesses. Among these inventions are the x-ray illuminators, which play an important role in film viewing, perception and interpretation of visible images.
Unfortunately, conventional x-ray illuminators lack recharge ability which is a factor that has been limiting its use in the event of power failure.
The aim of this project is to construct a battery powered dual face radiographic viewing box with rotatable neck and adjustable stand that alleviates the cumbersomeness of carrying a table to a long distance for viewing of radiographs.
This illuminator will improve grade performance and produce clear images for more simplified accurate diagnosis, although the x-ray viewing box is locally constructed but it will be international standard with many features like momentary start switch standard, internal ventilation with a fan high luster white color coat finish, quality steel material and will accommodate all kinds of x-rays without occupying too much space.
The average luminance is a better indicator of the viewing box luminance than the central luminance. This is confirmed by the greater standard deviation in the mean central luminance than the standard for the mean average luminance12. Screen-film technology still has widespread use in developing countries. As such it is imperative to have quality control measures on viewing boxes. Despite the widespread use of screen-film technology in developing countries, there is a gradual shift to digital X-ray systems, which could be the ultimate solution to non-optimal viewing box luminance having a detrimental effect on radiograph reporting. The use of digital systems paves the way for other viewing options like the use of video monitors, printing the image on paper and the use of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), which have the advantage of eliminating the cost of film, chemicals and processor equipment. It should not escape one’s mind that digital imaging systems also have their relevant quality control requirements needed for optimal viewing of images.
For the development of world class Medical X-Ray Illuminators (View Box), we possess a robust infrastructure, which is spread over a vast area. It includes a design studio and a manufacturing unit that work together to ensure slimmest designs and high performance of our illuminators. All the components used in the fabrication process are sourced from quality conscious vendors. Our infrastructure also includes a quality testing facility, wherein the finished products are tested for their quality.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
- Higher cost of buying two separate viewing boxes.
- Lack of space in some x-ray department to accommodate two separate viewing boxes.
- Frequent power failure in some radiology department.
- Delay in some radiological department during viewing or reporting of radiographs.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
- To construct a dual face with battery powered radiographic viewing box with rotatable neck.
- To produce radiographic viewing box with alternative power supply.
- To provide an adjustable stand x-ray viewing box that can be adjusted to certain height.
- To provide a base with castor wheel for easy movement of the illuminator box from place to place.
- To make the viewing box rechargeable, eliminating problem of consistent power failure.
- To provide illumination that can be varied to small, medium and high range using rotating knob.
- To produce a radiographic viewing Box that has Durability with style.
- To produce illuminator with Latest technology.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
- Will reduce patient’s waiting time in radiological department.
- Possibility of sharing ideas between two radiographers using the equipment.
- Can be used in class rooms for study and demonstration.
- Can be used in locality where there is no power supply.
- Can be use any place due to its mobility.
- Viewing and reporting of radiographs with this equipment can be done any time irrespective of power failure, thus providing radiodiagnostic readily available.
- The equipment can be powered through electrical supply and simultaneously recharging the battery to desirable capacity providing steady function in case of power failure.
SCOPE OF STUDY
This construction of battery powered dual face radiographic viewing box with rotatable neck and adjustable stand was carried out within Enugu metropolis.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Smith Notthellen JA invented an x-ray illuminator with a means of varying the degrees of light intensity of illumination and equally a device for cooling excessive heat generated by the illuminator. But this invention has the disadvantage of being costly, bulky and complex.1
G Blackshaw et al examines the relative intensities of hospital lights sources and to compare these with the light intensities guidelines (1500 to 3000 candelas) of the British institute radiology. They found that only two light sources approached the British institute of Radiology light intensity x-ray viewing criteria: the x-ray viewing boxes of consultants radio logistics with a meridian light intensity of 3503 candelas and daylight from north facing windows with a meridian of 1464 candelas when overcast and 4669 candelas in sunshine.2
Thus Shoenfeld, Norman .A, developed a digital work station which can be used in a radiology laboratory with x-ray illuminators on an upper shelf for viewing traditional x-ray films and computer for example cathode ray tubes (TV monitor), at a lower shelf for viewing digitized x-ray images.3
Maxwell .A et al conducts a research of a statistically significant number of clinically important features are missed when radiographers are interpreted by holding an x-ray film up against the windows when compared with using an x-ray viewing box. These findings are most probably accounted for by a quantifiable difference in light intensity.4
Moreso, a locally made illumination box was produced by Etta P. Etta in his project where he aimed at encouraging an indigenously constructed x-ray illuminator box that will be cheaper than foreign made ones but still meet foreign standard. his construction like some foreign made ones is bulky and lacks a handle for easy carriage and also rough in appearance.5
Takao, Mitsunori et al invented a rechargeable battery charging circuit which sets supplemental charging capacity according to ambient temperature. in his inventions, he claimed that the amount of supplementary charging is increase at low ambient temperature and decrease at high ambient temperature with circuits each for supplementary charging with sensor for temperature monitoring and primary rapid charging.6
The new York rechargeable battery law on why rechargeable batteries? states, “Compared to single-use batteries, rechargeable batteries reduce waste.7
Subsequently, Yen-His Lin invented a controlling circuit for longtime battery retention which automatically disconnects a rechargeable battery with a protection circuit when the rechargeable is not used thus ensuring long time retention of power.8
Nanoscale rechargeable batteries were later invented by Nancy, Stauffer which have the advantage of charging up the batteries in five minutes in order to achieve higher battery performance.9
Thus, Martin Thompson, added, “power cuts are a chronic problem in Nigeria, holding back economic growth and discouraging investment in industry because company face additional cost of providing their own electricity.10
Samuel .L.A. et al invented a box structure having a light source and a light transmission panel on the front to receive x-ray film thereon for viewing with back- light illumination is provided with a horizontal cross bar detachable secured across the light transmission panel at a predeterminal vertical position to divide the viewing screen into upper and lower viewing areas .11
John M. Herron et al Examine the combined effects of image resolution and display luminance on observer performance for detecting of abnormalities depicted on posteroanterior chest radiograph. They use a total of 529 radiograph which are displayed on a specially constructed view box at three illuminance (770,260,and 85cd/m2) and resolution (100um,200um and 400um pixel). The image was reviewed nine times and show a result of receiver operating characteristics curve indicating that the effect of image luminance was greater than that of resolution. The salient feature of the view box was the ability to vary and maintain the illumination at three distinct luminance levels. This was accomplished by reducing the current to each lamp and maintaining the selected luminance with optical feedback.12
Chesney’s radiographic Imaging sixth Edition states that : it is vital, therefore, to place a great deal of importance on providing quality viewing equipment when planning imaging departments. No matter how good the quality of a giving film image, all the effort and skill expanded in producing it will be wasted unless the conditions under which it is viewed are satisfactory.13
- McCarthy et al measure average viewing box brightness, percentage uniformities and ambient light level in radiology, radiographer viewing areas and wards within three major Dublin hospitals comparing it with published recommendation by WHO and commission of European communities. Large variations were noted within each department , between department of the same hospital and between hospital for the same department type. mean value for average viewing boxes brightness for all department failed to achieve recommended levels. The important of comprehensive quality assurance programmes for viewing boxes has been highlighted so that visualization of images is not reduced to sub-optimal levels.14
T Nyathi et al Measure the luminance level of X-ray viewing boxes and ambient lighting levels in reporting rooms as
a quality assurance procedure, and to compare the results with those recommended by the Directorate of Radiation
Control, South Africa (DRC), European Commission (EC) and Nordic Radiation Protection Co-operation (NORDIC). The mean average luminance was 1026.75 } 548.65 cd m-2 and 3284.38 327.91 cd m-2 at the Division of
Radiology and Division of Radiation Oncology respectively.15
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