1.1 BACKGROUUND OF THE STUDY
In this era of organizational complexity, industrial sophistication and technological advancement, the need for manpower training program cannot be overemphasized, as the application of acquired skills will go a long way in ensuring effective productivity in a world of work (Harrison, 2009). The importance of human resource to any organization; whether public or private has long been identified as a tool for goal attainment. Organizational objectives such as profit maximization, share of market and social responsibilities cannot be fulfilled without human beings who coordinate the activities of organization using other factors of production such as land, capital and entrepreneur. The reduction of the value of human capital to any organization has led to a proposal by experts that people should be classified as “assets” and to be recorded in accounting record (Griffin, 2008). Investment in human capital is a worthy and necessary expenditure if an organization is to discharge its legal, statutory and social responsibilities to its owners, public and the society. In order for a business concern to fair well in the environment in which it operates, it must select the right people, at the right time, to fill the right position. To achieve this aim, the organization must realize the need to develop manpower through staff training, career path, and other essential ingredients (Pitfield, 2009). Since it is obvious that today is never the same with the past, managers are compelled to make the fullest possible use of human resources. The rapid proliferation of computer innovation in production system, increasing size of an organization, changing social values, increasing economic affluence and the emergence of new technologies have swept us to the area of unprecedented change. These changing conditions have significantly increased the demand of managerial, professional and technical talents in organizations along with organizational training, manpower development and staff development programme. Most organisations have realised that the performance of their workers plays a vital role in determining the success of the organisation (Onuka, 2006). As such, it is important for employers and managers alike to know how to get the best out of their workers. One of the antecedent determinants of workers’ performance is believed to be manpower development (Lawal, 2008) However, in Nigeria as well as in other developing countries, low productivity remains a recurrent phenomenon, especially in the public sector, owing to the physical and psychological problems created by the inability of management to embrace manpower development. It is then necessary for training of workers in organisations to be enhanced in order to increase commitment and productivity (Oribabor, 2009).
Manpower development is very vital to job productivity and organization performance since the formal educational system does not adequately provide specific job skills for a position in a particular organization. While, few individuals may have the requisite skills, knowledge, abilities and competencies needed to fit into a specific job function, some others may require extensive training to acquire the necessary skills to be able to fit in a specific job function and also make significant contribution to the organization’s performance.
Onasanya (2005) defines manpower development as a form of specialized education aimed at giving the employee a particular or specialized knowledge, skill and attitude which he must possess to effectively perform in a given position while development is concerned with specific programmes designed to prepare and groom a worker with particular education and training for higher responsibilities. Capacity building according to entails investment in human capital, institutions and practices necessary to enhance human skills, overhaul institutions and improve procedures and systems.
Sanusi (2002) further sees capacity building as the internalization of the knowledge, skills and processes that enable the formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of set goals in an efficient manner; while views it as a series of activities, which an organization, enterprise or even a nation needs to undertake to provide for itself, on a continuous basis, the supply of skilled manpower to meet its present and future needs.
Manpower development according to Anyanwu (2002) is the process of building up human resources to meet the needs of an organization. He stated further that Manpower development includes investment by a society in education, investment by employers in training employees and investments by individual in time and money in their own development.
Manpower development has been an important variable in increasing organizational productivity. Many researchers showed that manpower development is a fundamental and effectual instrument in successful accomplishment of the firm’s goals and objectives, resulting in higher productivity. Manpower development builds a team that is effective, efficient and well motivating, thereby enhancing the confidence and self-esteem of employees. Manpower development creates chances for the promotion of employees to replace those who have left the organization. Indeed, the benefits of manpower development are innumerable. (Colombo 2008).
Civil service is the backbone of the government, for it controls the entire administrative machinery of the government. The civil service as a bureaucratic institution having a crop of individuals from all works of life within the society is organized to carry out the activities of the government both on administration and business aspect.
The word bureaucracy has over the years acquired an odious connotation. This associated with inefficiency, lack of initiative and unintelligent rigidity in the approach to human problems. This is the sum total impression that comes to mind when the word bureaucracy is mentioned and applied to the way civil servants go about their normal business.
Civil service has suffered in the hands of ethnic politics and dichotomy, nepotism, godfatherism, corruption at the highest level, unnecessary interference from the ruling class because of political party’s policies, programmes and influences. But as part of manpower development are not addressed properly. Although there is policy on manpower development but implementation and funding lacks the executive support for its execution to the letter.
Pointing on the need for manpower development in civil service for required workers productivity, Nwachukwu (2008) said that “employee productivity is a function of ability, will and situational factors. An organization may have employees of ability and determination with appropriate equipment and management support, yet productivity falls below expected standards. The missing factor in many cases is the lack of adequate skill and knowledge which are acquired through training and development”.
Civil service personnel are wonderful instruments and assets in the government administrative activities.
As we know that change is constant, they need encouragement, incentives and all it takes to help them explore and rise to another level in order to withstand and measure up with the challenges obtainable in other nation’s civil service. What they need mostly coupled with incentives and encouragement is training and development to achieve this fit. If they are equipped with area, only time will tell the level of resultant benefits we will reap through civil service to the betterment of Enugu.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the process of data sourcing for this research work, there are problems facing Enugu state civil service which in one way or the other is peculiar to the entire civil service in Enugu. There is problem of inefficiency and lack of drive among a great number of workers in the workforce coupled with low productivity. Also, inadequate training and development programmes and facilities for the manpower and there is no proper funding and sponsoring of personnel to undergo training and development courses.
Furthermore, the welfare and proper conducive working condition of the workforce not addressed properly. Result oriented management that can organize, direct and coordinate human and material resources to achieve aims and objectives is lacking.
Finally, unnecessary intervention and pressures from the political and executive class on the civil service has made vacant posts politicized thereby trusting professionalism and expertise. This also brought class struggle among management staff and to some extent goes down to subordinate groups, which causes lack of enabling work environment within the services community with tribal problems on ground.
From the problems stated we ask these questions what is the cause of inefficiency and lack of drive among the workforce? And what should be the remedies? Also looking at low productivity in the workforce, has inadequate training and development of the workers anything to do with it? Or does the issue of improper dressing to workers welfare and working Condition added to it? What can the government and management do to help civil service thrive in this millennium era?
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the skill and technical competence of the workers?
- What are the workforce, their needs, problems and environment and seek a way to address them properly which will boost their morale?
- How can political and executive pressure will be minimized in order to allow the civil service to flourish as supposed and to bring a lasting solution to tribal problems in the service community?
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The general purpose of this study is Manpower development and workers productivity in Enugu: while the specific study are as follows;
- To improve the skill and technical competence of the workers.
- To examine the workforce, their needs, problems and environment and seek a way to address them properly which will boost their morale.
- To find a way in which the political and executive pressure will be minimized in order to allow the civil service to flourish as supposed and to bring a lasting solution to tribal problems in the service community.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work is of great relevance to the society at Large. This is applicable to the government institution, the readers of this research work and to the research.
Empirically: The benefit of this research work to the government and society at large is that by the end of the research, the weak points and short-comings of all the sectors of the nation would be pinpointed, and displayed based on findings, hereby proffering solution to the problem.
Theoretically: To the reader, they will be upgraded intellectually and also will be highly informed of the up and doings of the Enugu State Civil Service through organisation efficiency, also partake in the public affairs of the country geared towards the achievement of workers productivity in Enugu State and other government Institutions at large.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The project research study focuses on manpower development and workers productivity in Enugu state, using Enuggu state civil service. The research study provided us with the level of workers development so far and their productivity, problems and challenges, the way forward for the fulfillment of organizational goal.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher was faced with a number of constraints during the course of the work. Time constraints are also a limiting factor in undertaking this study. The limiting factors are that of availability of data which might be difficult to obtain following the trend of the attitude of Nigerians with regards to giving out information.
The limitations was overcome through the use of secondary source of data collection, they are as follows: Internet, Newspaper, Textbooks, Library and financial support from my parents.
1.8 OPERATIONALIZATION/DEFINITION OF TERMS
In the subsection I have defined the concepts used in this essay the way I want them to be understood.
Manpower Development: This is the activities put in place by an organization to help and expose her employees to acquire required basic skill and knowledge for efficient execution of function and more to perform additional duties in the organizational hierarchy.
Worker Productivity: It is the employee working contribution which brings about increase output at low cost – input which adds to the economic growth of the organization. OR: The employee output cost value is greater than input cost value.
Civil Service: Civil service is a bureaucratic institution which controls the entire administrative machinery of the government (Federal / State)
EFFICIENCY: Efficiency is used is terms of input, output and organizational objective to mean achievement of objectives at a minimum cost
ORGANIZATION: An organization is a structured process in which persons interact for objectives.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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