Page Length: 111

Size: 74 KB

Format: PDF & Word



This research project was aimed at optimization of adsorption conditions for removal of methylene blue dye using conventionally activated hamburger seed shell.  The activated carbon was first prepared from the hamburger seed shell through carbonization at a temperature of 8000C for 2 hours followed by activation using conc. KOH 9m as activating agent at a temperature if 8500C for 1hour.  The prepared activated carbon was then used for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.  The influence of various adsorption conditions such as adsorption dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time, temperature and pH were studied.  The experimental data were analyzed by calculating the percentage removal and adsorptive capacity at equilibrium for the various adsorption factors.  The result obtained shows that the percentage removal increases with increase in adsorbent dosage, pH, and temperature and contact time while the effect of initial concentration increases with decrease in percentage removal. Similarly on the analysis of adsorptive capacity the pH, initial concentration and contact time increases with increase in adsorptive capacity.  From the results optimum adsorption was at pH of 10, 30mg/L initial concentration, 0.2g dosage and contact time of 3 hours.

















Activated carbon are high porosity and high surface area material manufactured by process of carbonization and activation of the carbonaceous material which find extensive use in the adsorption of pollution (ie unwanted materials) from liquid and gaseous streams.  Activated carbon is a carbonaceous material which is amorphous in nature and in which a high degree of porosity is developed during the manufacturing and treatment process. Its high porosity and high surface area to volume ratio makes it the most versatile adsorbent to be used for the effective removal of organic solid like the methylene blue dye from industrial effluent before disposing to the environment.

The intrinsic properties of activated carbon are dependent on the raw material used during manufacturing.  Activated carbon with high specific surface area and pore volume can be prepared from a variety of carbonaceous material such as coal, hamburger seed shell, wood, coconut shell, agricultural and industrial waste.  In industrial practices, coal, hamburger and coconut shell, are the two main sources for the production of activated carbon.  Other material like lignite, petroleum, coke, saw dust, peat, fruit and met shell may be used to manufacture activated carbon but the properties of the finished material are governed not only by the raw material used but also on the method of activation applied.



Waste water from textile, cosmetics, dyeing, food processing and paper-making industries are polluted by dye (coloured pigment).  Discharge of these coloured effluents present a major environmental problem for developing countries because of there toxic and carcinogenic effect on human and aquatic life.  Many methods such as activated carbon adsorption, chemical coagulation, ion exchange etc have been used for removing these impurities from waste water before being discharged to the environment.

In early days, activated carbon source material were mainly bone char and animal blood, coke, coal, bitumen and wood some other raw materials for the production of activated carbon which later took the centre stage due to their availability.

Research indicates that the source of material used to prepare activated carbon have significant effect on its pore structure, surface area, texture, resistance to fragmentation and adsorption capacity.  The sourcing of this raw material (hamburger seed shell) was based on the need to develop a low cost adsorbent for pollution control as well as reducing its effect on environmental degradation caused by agro-waste.



The objective of this research project is to study the optimization condition of adsorption for the removal of methylene blue dye using conventionally activated hamburger seed shell as an adsorbent.

It will also encourage the improvement in the use of agricultural waste materials such as hamburger seed shell, mango seed shell, palm kernel shell, coconut shell etc in the production of a low cost adsorbent and hence reducing the effect of environmental degradation posed by these agro-waste materials.



The scope and limitation of this research project includes the following processes.

  1. Carbonization of the hamburger seed shell.
  2. Activation of the carbonized sample
  3. Adsorption and
  4. Analytical treatment on the optimization of the process conditions of the adsorption process.



During the research project on the topic “optimization of adsorption conditions for the removal of methylene blue dye using conventionally activated hamburger seed shell”, two method of research were employed. They are theoretical and practical/experimental methods.

The theoretical method involves sourcing of information/data from internet, library, academic superiors and associates while the experimental method deals with the actual practical work on carbonization, activation, adsorption process etc.



The significant of this research work includes the following:

  1. It will enable us to know the processes of adsorption/bleaching involved in the refining of solution.
  2. The research will go a long way towards establishing optimal conditions for adsorption using methylene blue as an adsorbate.
  3. The information to be pronded from this research work will serve a useful purpose for the industrialist in the agricultural sector.

4.    Lastly, it will make a significant effect on the control of environmental pollution.


DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Administrator (Online)
Hello and welcome. I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.